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discovering neutrinos: from the earth...the sun... our sister galaxy... ...next a galactic center?. L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University. …an experimenter’s tribute to Maury Shapiro.

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slide1

discovering neutrinos:

from the earth...the sun...

our sister galaxy...

...next a galactic center?

L. R. Sulak

CPPM Marseille and Boston University

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide2

…an experimenter’s tribute to Maury Shapiro...

from Dumand & IMB... thru Super K ...and onto Antares

today, the first of two talks

L. R. Sulak

CPPM Marseille and Boston University

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide3

...homage to Maury,

godfather to Dumand, IMB, &

the legacy of detectors that followed

...even those still on their way

for precocious support of neutrino astrophysics...

water Cherenkov and acoustic detection techniques,

proton decay & neutrino oscillation searches

MS born the year of Einstein’s General Relativity...destined for physics

off to Los Alamos in ’44, with all the greats, + Val Fitch

Cosmic Ray Lab at Naval Research Lab...Navy funds my PhD stimulating water Č detection since ’76 study of Dumand

inspiring young scientists for > 28 years when I met him

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide4

...a retrospective on  detection by Cherenkov light in water,

and a perspective for the next 4 years

invention of technology: massive, pixellated, time and amplitude

Dumand

IMB

evolution

Kamioka to Super-K

astro discoveries!

terrestrial neutrinos confirmed IMB

extra-terrestrial neutrinos...solar K

extra-galactic neutrinos...Magellanic Cloud IMB & K

particle physics! neutrino oscillation and mass

yet to come?

AGN & BZS neutrinos (Amanda) & Antares

(IceCube & Km3)

proton decay, CP violation (Megaton)

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide5

...a personal commentary...evolution of neutrino astrophysics...

Retrospective of 4 ring-imaging Cherenkov Detectors:

muon telescope, prematurely terminated (with SSC), then reborn

Dumand ’76-’93 0.1 km2  1 km3 7 countries, off Hawaii

Antares ’05 8 countries, off France

world’s largest calorimeters

IMB ’81 10 kilotons 2k pms salt mine, Ohio

Kamiokande ’83 3 kilotons 1k pms heavy metal mine, Japan

Super-K ’96 50 kilotons 13k pms 2nd Kamioka site

detectors color-coded throughout talks

see other talks for details and other experiments:

e.g. Goodman, Kuzmin, Mikheyev, Migneco, Postnov, Silvestri, Stanev...

slide6

IMB 1981

2000 - 5” EMI pms, time & pe

25 Mev threshold

reverse osmosis water, world’s purist water, > 50m

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide7

Kamiokande 1983:

1000 - 20 inch pms

40% photocathode coverage

outer veto

7 MeV threshold, for sun

1 km underground...for sun

= 2.7 km of water,

Antares depth, 2x Amanda

initially no timing,

minimal water filtering

remedied in Kamioka III, 1986

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide8

Super-K 1996

half way up first filling

inner detector:

11,000 20 inch pms

outer detector (not visible):

reconfigured IMB III

2,000 8 inch pms with

wavelength-shifting

light collectors

slide9

Dumand (1987) : 7 - 15” photomultipliers in 17” Benthos spheres

short prototype string deployment

1 week operation

to 4.5 km depth

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide10

14.5 m

350 m

40 km to

shore

100 m

Junction

Box

~70 m

Line anchor

Antares (2004-6): 900 pms, 12 lines, 25 stories/line, 3 pms/story

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

Submarine links

slide11

with Markov & Zheleznykh’s inspiration,

ultra high energy neutrino signatures

for Dumand (and successors)

1) long penetrating muon tracks,

mostly with minimal light

2) short bright hadronic showers

if vertex “nearby”

signature, & light attenuation length,

set spacing & size of light sensors

“Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976, LRS

slide12

the challenge...

reconstructing energy and

direction of particle tracks using

light intensity

arrival time

Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop, 1976, LRS

slide13

Dumand array concept:

~ the same in Antares

similar in IMB, Amanda...

“Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976

slide14

the Dumand site:

same distance to shore

as Antares

4.8 km deep: atm  shielding

2x Antares, 4x Amanda

...we were conservative in ’76

“Proc. Dumand Summer Workshop,” 1976

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics L. R. Sulak

slide15

an optical module:

photomultipler housing,

precursor for Amanda, Antares

without Benthos spheres,

similar for IMB, then

Kamioka and Super-K

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide16

Dumand concept:

line deployment

slide17

...conclusion of Dumand ’76 Workshop:

...stage was set...for a massive “land-based” prototype...IMB

slide18

...when PDK impetus came,

10 kiloton prototype design study

immersed hemispherical pms

single photoelectrons (1/4 pe lsb)

2-scale “waveform digitization”

1 ns for directionality

0.1 ms, muon decay

deadtimeless

calibration

LED ball, N2 laser, muon decay

Cortez, Foster, Levi, LoSecco

LRS: “Madison Meeting on Proton Stability,”

D. Cline, ed., December 1978

slide19

...a 0.5 MeV muon track...

what does it look like?

LRS: Erice 1980,

“Neutrino ’79,” Bergen & “FWOGU,” 1980

slide20

...why is timing so important?

Cherenkov light is directiona

~ 1 ns resolution  few degrees

LRS: Erice 1980, “Neutrino ’79,”

Bergen & “FWOGU”, 1980

slide21

IMB Status at Erice 1980:

Proton decay detector details

and

First proposal of

neutrino oscillation search

over baseline of earth via

up/down /e asymmetry

critical in securing

DOE funding

LRS: also “FWOGU” 1980

slide22

IMB I:

after 1 year operation,

5% of pms crack

...reverse osmosis

too clean

IMB II:

replace 5” EMI pms

with 8” Hamamatsu pms...

designed using IMB

photoelectron tracing code

IMB III:

add wavelength shifting

light collector plates

imb iii 1983 2000 8 inch pms and light collectors dry suit diver physicist
IMB III (1983) 2000 - 8 inch pms and light collectors dry suit diver/physicist

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide24

IMB: best proton decay candidate...pm code = timing in color, 1 pe/slash

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide26

Nucleon Lifetime Limits

IMB: 45 decay modes

mass is everything,

MEGATON is needed

McGrew 2003

slide27

atm s: up-going , as well as contained events...red entry, yellow exit...

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide28

IMB: Do the neutrino-induced up-going muons point back to a source?

Galactic

Latitude

Galactic Longitude

…sun, moon, galactic center? with 496 IMB events, no

...with Super-K? no, see Shantanu Desai’s recent PhD

too small! need Amanda, Antares, IceCube, Km3

slide29

“Supersymmetry...

has generated so many thousands of papers it must be correct”

Shelly Glashow

slide30

…at 07:35:35 UT…bam…b-bam bam bam…8 times in IMB …11 in Kamioka

…an entire sun implodes, explodes...in 13 seconds

super nova all heavy elements are born iodine silver gold
Super Nova…all heavy elements are born....iodine, silver, gold...

the night before 23 Feb > 4 hours after neutrino burst

slide32

…each with a beautiful Cherenkov ring

…all detectors hit at the same time…time encoded in color

slide34

SuperNova!

Cover Story

slide35

IMB “anomaly:” see only 75% of expected muon-neutrinos...

...but Kamioka found no muon anomaly (e.g.Kajita PhD ’86)...until ‘88

slide36

conclusion...

Technology driven by the science:

pixelated, ring-imaging Cherenkov calorimetry...proven

submersible, depth-tolerant pms and electronics

single photoelectron operation

pattern recognition and directionality

Astro-neutrino physics discoveries:

first physics beyond standard model

neutrino mass and oscillation...most cited paper of all time

first extra-terrestrial neutrinos, imaging sun with them

first extra-galactic neutrinos – SN 1987A

grand unification still the ultimate goal,

...and annihilations, high energy point sources etc. await discovery!

slide37

…pursuing cosmic ray and neutrino astrophysics...

Maury,

on behalf of your experimental friends, and me,

from Dumand, IMB, Super-K and Antares,

we thank you for your seminal cosmic ray work and

for your intellectural support of our experiments

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide41

...dedicated to you, the new generation of  astrophysicists...

discovering neutrinos:

from the earth...the sun...

our sister galaxy...

...next a galactic center?

L. R. Sulak

CPPM Marseille and Boston University

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide42

…an experimenter’s view of technical details

from Dumand & IMB... thru Super K ...and onto Antares

today, the second of two talks

L. R. Sulak

CPPM Marseille and Boston University

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide43

...a retrospective on  detection by Cherenkov light in water,

and a perspective for the next 4 years

 invention of technology: massive, pixellated, time, amplitude

 IMB

Dumand to Antares

evolution

Kamioka and Super-K

astro discoveries!

 terrestrial neutrinos confirmed IMB

 extra-galactic neutrinos...Magellanic Cloud IMB & K

extra-terrestrial neutrinos...solar K

particle physics! neutrino oscillation and mass

yet to come?

AGN & BZS neutrinos Amanda, IceCube Silvestri Km3Migneco acoustic detection

proton decay, CP violation Megaton

slide44

Kamioka II 1987: with timing by U. Penn & Cortez, & Rn purification

...low energy electron-neutrino events point back to the sun!

...with hi statistics, Super-K sees only 47% of expected solar model flux

22,400 solar neutrino events

15 events/day

Direction cosine to the sun

slide45

pointing neutrinos from the peak back to find their origin...

…Kamioka and Super-K “see” the sun…a neutrino heliograph

from Svoboda

slide46

...but tubes from Kamioka not tested at Super-K depth!!!

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide47

Super-K II (2003): a typical muon-neutrino event

...in time with beam pulse from KEK accelerator 300 km away

...sharp ring edges characteristic of a muon track

slide48

typical electron track...fuzzy at edges

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide50

but 30% of muon neutrinos missing...those coming up through the earth

...six other different samples of neutrino data behave similarly

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide52

neutrinos are missing with high statistical significance...

...consistent with original IMB anomaly and later Kamiokande results

...but not with much smaller iron detectors

slide53

Dumand 1987:

Optical Module Fabrication

...magnetic shielding and

Boston electronics visible

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide54

Dumand Short Prototype String Assembly:

0.5 km optical and electrical cables

kevlar support cables

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide55

String controller distribution box...power (black) and optic fibers (red)

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide56

Dumand ’87

deployment of string controller

view of middle of string with

power converters

1 GHz digitizer

optical multiplexer/demultiplexer

1 of the 7 optical modules seen in front

slide57

Dumand ‘87:

laying of cable

slide58

Dumand: winch laying cable and junction box

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide59

Junction box deployment,

with cable to shore

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide60

Dumand ’87:

junction box resting

on the bottom

at 4.8 km

now

...fast forward to Antares

slide61

...why 2 detectors? viewing the heavens below each detector...

RXJ 1713.7-39

RXJ 1713.7-39

PSR B1706-44

PSR B1706-44

ANTARES (43° North)

AMANDA (South Pole)

Mkn 421

Mkn 421

Mkn 501

Mkn 501

~Never seen

SN1006

SN1006

CRAB

CRAB

Never seen

CasA

CasA

1ES2344+514

VELA

1ES2344+514

VELA

PKS 2155-30

PKS 2155-30

galactic center only seen byAntares, but good overlap...

sun, and any SUSY anihilations from it, always at Amanda’s horizon

...complementary  telescopes necessary in both hemispheres

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide62

Antares preproduction prototype (2002-3)...1 of ~ 20 sea campaigns

buoy

acoustic

receiver

3 optical modules

12m

local control module

LED beacon

master local control module

acoustic

receiver

string control module and

string power module

acoustic

beacon

100m

acousticreleases

interlink cable with

wet-mateable connector

anchor

slide63

deployment of Antares preproduction prototype 2002

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide64

underwater connection

to prototype:

manned sub

1 of 4 from Ifremer

based at Toulon, FR

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide65

Antares

prototype:

spool out cable

from string

bottom to

junction box

slide66

plugging the pre-production string at 2.4 km depth

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide67

plugging line from prototype string into the junction box

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide68

junction box at depth, with prototype string connected

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide69

Nestor prototype...off of Greece

“Star” Deployment March 2003

6 blue optical modules

2 pm’s each

6 yellow floats

above pix:

white lines to bouy

red line to LED beacon

below, unseen:

lines to junction box

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak

slide71

(1/N)dN/dcos(θ)

M.C. Prediction

Data Points

Zenith Angle (degrees)

Angular Fits to Nestor Raw Data

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide72

Nestor measurement of atmospheric muon flux

...another existence proof for deep underwater technology

slide73

conclusions for the water Cherenkov detectors...

Technology driven by the science:

pixelated, ring-imaging Cherenkov calorimetry...proven

submersible, depth-tolerant pms and electronics

single photoelectron operation to maximize sensitivity

directionality from timing

pattern recognition for electron/muon discrimination

Astro-neutrino physics discoveries:

first physics beyond standard model

neutrino mass and oscillation...most cited paper of all time

first extra-terrestrial neutrinos, imaging sun with them

first extra-galactic neutrinos – SN 1987A

grand unification still an ultimate goal,

...and annihilations, high energy point sources etc await discovery too!

slide74

a new era since 1998, the discovery of neutrino mass and oscillations

now a panoply of key, very difficult, neutrino physics experiments

precision neutrino oscillation parameters

...search for CP violation in a new sector of nature

neutrinoless double beta decay: is the neutrino its own antiparticle? absolute mass scale of neutrinos...the problem of mass neutrino astronomy

all point to a high energy scale, possibly Grand Unification scale

each goal has very different needs

neutrino sources...flux, energy, baseline

detectors...shielding, depth, volume

neutrino physics: as important as searching for electroweak scale at LHC!

... neutrinos merit the many required new facilities

...

slide75

...in your future...

Evolution of Neutrino Research Worldwide

Facility Detectors Neutrino Source

SNOLab SNO→SNO+ →SNO++ Bruce Reactor

bb, Dark Matter + ...

Soudan Lab Minos → NOnA NuMI → p driver

Kamioka Lab SK → Hyper-K K2K → T2K KEK → JPARC

Kamland → new reactor

Gran Sasso Lab Opera, Icarus CNGS → SPL

Modane Lab → Megaton CERN → SPL

South Pole Amanda → IceCube astro-neutrinos

Mediterranean Antares/Nemo/Nestor → Km3 astro-neutrinos

slide76

...time limits talk to selected future operations

SNOLab... “new” international lab, in transition

$50 M expansion program to accommodate many experiments

SNO detector evolution

Km3 astrophysical observatory... 3 sites and 2 technologies Migneco

first data from Nestor prototype “star”

construction of 12 “string” Antares underway

Km3 engineering, site study (10 M Euro) in approval process

Frejus Lab...a home for Megaton...an Italian/French initiative

potentially with ideal beams from CERN

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide77

beside “my back yard,”

why so many facilities?

for Megaton...

the bigger the cavity better,

deeper not necessarily better

for solar & sensitive exp’ts

the deeper, the better

e.g. spallation from muons

impossible for IMB

to do solar neutrinos

...consider SNO at Sudbury

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide78

...Letters of Intent, presentations from May…

Prospective Experiments at New SNOLab International Facility

6 kmwe, deepest int’l facility: 70 muons/day vs. 26,000/day at Kamioka

2 new halls, 30m x 15m, approved (~1/2 size vs. Gran Sasso), $50 M upgrades

potentially in new halls, starting ‘07: Dark Matter Searches

CDMS vs Soudan, SNO depth minimizes muon-induced fast neutrons

ZEPLIN dark matter with liquid scintillator, if Boulby is not deep enough

CLEAN 1 T (10 T for solar n) self-shielded, scintillating liquid Ne/Xe*

XENON drifting charge dark matter search - R & D

DRIFT dark matter with pointing using low pressure TPC:

PICASSO acoustic detection of nuclear recoil with superheated bubbles in gel

Neutrino Experiments

HALO SNO 3He detectors with Pb, supernova neutrinos

Noble Liquid Tracking Detectors for solar neutrinos with He or Xe

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide79

Double Beta Decay searches

Majorana 500 kg of Ge detectors for  : scale up of known technology

GERDA (~GENIUS) 1 T Ge crystals in clean Liq N2, no housings, self-shielded

EXO Xe TPC, with laser fluorescence tag of Ba upon decay

COBRA CdZnTe...semiconductor, all 3  candidates

with the SNO Detector or Cavity

after 3He neutral current work is done, SNO Phase III over, D2O comes out in ’07

SNO+ geo and reactor neutrinos: fill with scintillator

with n tag, get 700 kT fiducial

SNO++  Decay: scintillator + 1 Ton of Te or Nb nanocrystals

or + 2 Ton Xe dissolved gas

SNO best facility in world for almost all experiments?

...except cavity size too small for Megaton

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide80

...potential future of SNO+ Detector, for geo and reactor neutrinos...

A Closer Look at SNO+

infrastructure for low background work

e.g. low Rn cover gas (N2), 1 neutron capture/day from U&Th

1 kT of low background liquid scintillator, as in KamLAND w/ 10-17

Geo electron anti-neutrinos

n energy = 3.4 MeV - 1.8 MeV Q = 1.6 MeV positron + 1 MeV e+e- annihilation = 2.6 MeV deposited

KamLAND at 180 km from reactors looks for geo n at <2.6 MeV

but overwhelmed by 2nd oscillation minimum at 3 MeV

...hard to extract geo n since reactor n spectrum distorted just there

and only ~40 geoneutrinos per year

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide81

...the geoneutrino signal to noise in KamLAND:

...geo-neutrinos and reactor neutrinos difficult to separate

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide82

... SNO+ vs. KamLAND: how important is distance from reactor?

SNO+ is 240 km from 14 GW Bruce vs KamLAND at 180 km from 80 GW

2nd reactor oscillation minimum moves up x 1.5 to 5 MeV

reactor flux is max

no geo n signal >3.4 MeV

...clean for reactor neutrinos

narrower dip  sharper spectral distortion

a notch at 5 MeV

80 events / year, if no reactor oscillations

note subtle difference in pattern with Casper’s Oscillator

for geo-neutrinos, look < 2.6 MeV,

at SNO+ many fewer reactor neutrinos (1 reactor, further away)

oscillation pattern smeared out

64 geo-neutrino events / year vs. 29 at KamLAND & 10 at Borexino

U/Th neutrino source thick continental crust,

vs. the thin coastal crust in Japan

SNO+... ideal to separate geo from reactor neutrinos

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide83

KamLAND

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

D. Casper’s n Oscillator

slide84

SNO+

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

D. Casper’s n Oscillator

slide85

...again using the great depth...

SNO+ as low energy solar neutrino detector

7Be 0.86 MeV line

10% calculational, 40% experimental uncertainty...difficult

pep 1.44 MeV line...a precision measurement

1% predicted uncertainty...3000/year oscillated

muon-induced 11C → e+ gives 1 MeV within 20 minutes

untenable background in KamLAND and Borexino due to lack of depth

SNO+ : with only 70 muons/day

track muon and veto 1 m radius around it

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide86

...the other lab with a rebirth...

Modane Megaton detector: two possible cavities, both ~130 km to CERN

Fréjus I required second tunnel, near the present lab, ’05-’08

deep covering, 4800 mwe

dry rock, good quality, well known

Fréjus II 15 km experimental tunnel for new Lyon-Torino TGV train

(actual train tunnel to be longest and deepest in Europe)

endorsed by Chirac and Berlusconi last month

covering of 7000 mwe

rock expected to be hard, but not yet studied

potentially water, since glaciers above

slide87

EU: build Megaton for proton decay and supernova while tunneling;

super and beta beams later

JPARC/T2K: Hyper-K and 2 MW proton source upgrade tentative,

wait for proton decay hint at Super-K, or

favorable θ13 measurement in T2K

...Hyper-K could be much later than EU detector

slide88

Advantages of Frejus Sites

independent, horizontal access

neutrino super-beams and beta beams likely upgrades to CERN

at “magic distance” and right L/E (130 km / 0.3 GeV) for those beams

if LEP RF cavities recycled, 2.2 GeV protons give 0.3 GeV n

higher energy, muon/pion discrimination a problem

lower energy, muons don’t make enough Cherenkov light in water

(further away, higher E, as in US, e/po/g separation a problem for Č

Italian / French joint initiative

“extension” of Gran Sasso Lab... water prevents a Megaton cavity there

preliminary study of large cavity (106 m3) at both Fréjus sites 

maximum possible size of cavity for each of 3 shapes?

cost and time of excavation?

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide89

...under study

Modane “Megaton,” 2 detector technologies, 3 geometries

1 MT water Cherenkov à la Hyper-K

100 kT liquid argon

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide90

...conclusions...

new recognition of importance of neutrino physics

relative to electroweak symmetry breaking

necessity of coupled source / detector facilities

synergism with proton drivers at CERN, FNAL, JPARC

increased luminosity and intensity for other experiments

radioactive ion beams...nuclear, biology, medicine

naturally lead to hot neutrino beams

in next two years: results expected from

Antares, Minos...as well as many other experiments

longer term: significant promise for IceCube, Km3, Megaton, Hyper-K

...bright future for neutrino facilities, near, medium and long term

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide91

Acknowledgements

It is a pleasure to express my appreciation to my following collaborators for contributing material for this review

John Learned Dumand photographs

John LoSecco IMB historical documentation

Clark McGrew Proton Decay Limits, 2003

Masayuki Nakahata Kamiokande historical data and archives

Robert Svoboda Super-K neutrino heliograph

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics - L. R. Sulak

slide92

Cronological Milestones for the 5 Detectors

‘76 Dumand conceptually designed

‘78 10 kTon design study  ’79 IMB proposes PDK and e/ ratio

‘81 IMB turns on

‘83 IMB: no proton decay! no SU5 Grand Unification! Foster,Cortez PhD

Kamioka turns on

‘86IMB anomaly: 25% of atmospheric muon-neutrinos missing

‘87 Dumand string of 7 optical modules down to 4.5 km depth for week

IMB+Kamioka: neutrinos from Supernova 1987a

‘88 Kamioka image sun in neutrino light Nobel Prize ‘02 Kamioka confirms missing muon-neutrinos

’89 Dumand funding approved for 0.1 km2 array

‘93 Dumand funding lapsesalong with SSC

Antares R&D starts

‘96 Super-K turn-on, outer detector = IMB

‘98 Super-K: establishes muon-neutrinos oscillate, have mass

‘01 Super-K: solar electron-neutrinos oscillate too

’04 Antares deployment starts