The average distance from Earth to the sun is • 1 ly • 1 million km • 1 million mi. • 1 billion km • 1 AU
A typical galaxy like our Milky Way galaxy contains • primarily planets. • gas only • stars (some with planets), gas and dust • a single star and planets.
Which is the greatest distance? • Earth to the moon. • Earth to the sun. • Earth to the Asteroid Belt. • Earth to the Kuiper Belt
In the diagram below, what is the diameter of Jupiter? • about 350,0about 350,000 km • about 700,000 km • about 14,000 km • about 140,000 km
If we say that an object is 1,000 light-years away we see it • as it looked 1,000 years ago. • as it would appear to our ancestors 1,000 years ago. • as it looked 1,000 light-years ago. • as it is right now, but it appears 1,000 times dimmer.
Which sequence is correct when ordered by increasing size? • Earth, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, clusters of galaxies • Solar System, Earth, galaxy clusters, Milky Way Galaxy • Earth, Milky Way Galaxy, Solar System, galaxy clusters • Galaxy clusters, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, Earth
How is a planet different than a star? • Planets are larger than stars. • Planets reflect light while stars produce light. • Stars move faster in the sky than planets. • Planets are brighter than stars.
The celestial equator is • the path that the sun appears to follow on the celestial sphere as Earth orbits the sun. • the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres. • a line around the sky directly above Earth's equator. • a and b. • b and c.
The ____ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer who can be at any point on the Earth.. • north celestial pole • nadir • zenith • celestial equator
The apparent visual magnitude of a star is a measure of the star's • size. • intensity. • distance. • color. • temperature.
The wobbling precession of the rotation axis of Earth is caused by • the force of gravity from the sun and moon on Earth's equatorial bulge. • the force of gravity from the sun and Jupiter on the Earth-moon system. • the magnetic field of Earth. • the formation and subsequent melting of glaciers during the ice-ages. • the impact of asteroids.
You visit a latitude of 28° N. What is the angle between the northern horizon and the north celestial pole? ANSWER 2 • 62° • 28° • 40° • 23° • 5° 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
An observer in the Northern Hemisphere at our lattitude takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing? • straight north • straight east • straight south • straight west
An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration below depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing? • straight north • straight east • straight south • straight west
The lower the number the greater the apparent visual magnitude. (negative numbers are greater than positive numbers)The star Vega has an apparent visual magnitude of 0.03 and the star HR 4374 has an apparent visual magnitude of 4.87. It has been determined that both stars are at the same distance from Earth. Thus, Vega MUST _____________. • be closer to Earth than HR 4374. • be farther from Earth than HR 4374. • produce less energy/second than HR 4374. • produce more energy/second than HR 4374.
Table 2-1[Table]Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would appear the SECOND brightest to an observer on Earth? • a Cet • a CMa • Nim • r Per • d Dra
Table 2-1[Table]On Earth, the unaided eye can see apparent visual magnitudes < 7.0. Refer to Table 2-1. Which star in the table would not be visible to the unaided eye of an observer on Earth? • a Cet • a Cma • Nim • r Per • d Dra
How much of the night sky is NORTH of the celestial equator? • Less than one-half, because of the tilt of the equator to the ecliptic plane. • More than one-half, because of the precession of the poles. • Exactly one-half. • Depends on the season.
If the Sun passes directly overhead on at least one day per year, then • you are within 23½° latitude of the equator. • you are within 66½° latitude of the equator. • you must be exactly on the equator. • you could be anywhere because this occurs at least once per year at any location on the Earth.
Stars in the same constellation • probably formed at the same time. • must be part of the same cluster of stars in space. • must have been discovered at about the same time at the same location in space. • may actually be very different distances away from the observer and from each other.
If the Earth's period of rotation doubled, but the period of revolution stayed the same each night would be • twice as long and the number of days per year would reduce in half • half as long and the number of days per year would double
The diagram below shows three approximate locations of the sun along the western horizon. Which number indicates the location of the sun at on June 21st for an observer in the Cleveland Ohio area? • 1 • 2 • 3
The diagram below shows three approximate locations of the sun along the western horizon. Which number indicates the location of the sun at sunset on the vernal equinox and autumnal equinoxes(respectively) for an observer at a latitude of 48° S? • 1,3 • 2,3 • 3,2 • 2,1 • 2,2
Northern Hemisphere winters are colder than Northern Hemisphere summers because • Earth is closer to the sun during the summer than it is during the winter. • the snow that falls in the northern latitudes cools Earth during the winter. • the light from the sun shines more directly on the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. • the period of sunlight is longer during the summer than during the winter. • c and d
______________ is the point in Earth's orbit where Earth is closest to the sun. • Aphelion • Perihelion • Precession • The winter solstice
The planet of our solar system that are never visible to the naked eye are • Pluto. • Mercury and Venus. • Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. • Neptune
On the autumnal equinox the sun is • on the celestial equator and moving north with respect to the equator. • on the celestial equator and moving south with respect to the equator.
When Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, which occurs? • a lunar eclipse • a solar eclipse • an annular eclipse • a terrestrial eclipse
A solar eclipse that occurs when the moon's umbra reaches Earth's surface and blocks out all of the sun’s light is called a(n) ____ eclipse. • total solar • partial solar • annular solar • penumbral solar
A totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because • the moon' surface is made of iron ore which is red in color. • red light is cooler than blue light. • during a lunar eclipse the sun is cooler than normal and its light is more red. • only red light is able to pass completely through Earth's atmosphere and reach the moon.
The lowest amount of solar energy per square meter upon the surface of Earth in the northern hemisphere is on or about • December 21, the winter solstice. • March 21, the vernal equinox. • September 21, the autumnal equinox. • June 21, the summer solstice.
Newton concluded that a force from the Earth had to act on the moon because • the moon moved at a constant velocity in a straight line. • a force is needed to pull the moon outward. • a force is needed to accelerate the moon toward Earth away from straight-line motion.
The age of the moon is approximately: • 4.5 billion years • 2.5 million years • 15 billion years • unknown
The phase of the Moon on a particular night is determined by the • season of the year. • speed of the Moon in is orbit. • relative positions of the Sun, Earth, & Moon. • distance from the Earth to the Moon.
Which phase of the Moon occurs between the first quarter and full moon? • new moon • waxing gibbous • waning crescent • waning gibbous
On a clear night when an observer in Los Angeles sees a first quarter Moon an observer in London would see • a full moon. • a first quarter moon. • a new moon. • a third quarter moon.
The composition of the Moon most closely resembles _____ leading to the theory that the moon was formed from a huge collision of an object with the Earth after it accreted and differentiated during formation.: • Earth’s core • Earth’s mantle • Earth’s crust • Mars
The periods of the Moon’s rotation and revolution are equal. This results in: • lunar eclipses • lunar phases • neap tides • the same side always facing earth
Retrograde motion • is observable for planets located between Earth and the sun. • is observable for planets more distant from the Sun than is Earth.
Galileo's telescopic observations of a complete set of phases of Venus proved • that Venus orbited the sun. • that Earth orbited the sun. • that all of the planets orbited the sun. • that Venus had an atmosphere.
Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon • were the same kind of object. • were not perfect spheres. • were inhabited. • orbited each other.
The force of gravity from one object extends to infinity never going to zero and works for atomic level observations, planetary motion, black holes and dark matter hypothesis. When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that • the Earth exerts gravitational force on objects on its surface • the Earth exerts a gravitational force on its moon and vice versa • the Earth, moon and sun exert gravitational forces on each other • all material objects in the universerse exert gravitational forces on one another.
The diagram below illustrates a portion of the model for the universe described by Ptolemy. The small circular paths the planets travel as they orbit the sun are referred to as • ellipse • epicycles • terraforms • gravity loops
In pre-Copernican astronomy, it was almost universally believed that • the planets traveled in elliptical orbits about the Earth. • the center of the universe was the Sun with the Milky Way representing other distant planets. • the Sun was at the center of the universe. • the Earth was at the center of the universe.
The orbit of the planet Jupiter is ellipse with the Sun at one focus. What is located at the other focus? • Nothing • Earth • Saturn • Jupiter
A which labeled interval of its orbit would the planet move with the greatest velocity since Kepler's second law states plantary orbits are not a constant speed, thus a planet should move at its greatest speed when closest to the sun? • A • B • C • D
Which correctly identifies the location of the asteroid belt? • A • B • C • D
Which correctly identifies the location of the Kuiper belt? • A • B • C • D
Astronomers build telescopes on tops of mountains because • there is less air to dim light. • the seeing is better. • a and b
A ____ has a few million light sensitive diodes in an array typically about a half-inch square that allows images to be digitized and computerized. • photometer • charge-coupled device • spectrograph