Imperialism in China and Japan. China Before Imperialism. Dynasties – hereditary rulers Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) superior culture Economic Isolationism Didn’t want to trade with Europe European goods considered inferior China had many natural resources
China Before Imperialism • Dynasties – hereditary rulers • Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) • superior culture • Economic Isolationism • Didn’t want to trade with Europe • European goods considered inferior • China had many natural resources • Qing Dynasty begins to weaken in 1800s due to corruption and internal rebellion
Colonizers and Motives • Colonizer(s) • Britain • Later – France, Germany, Japan & Russia , along with Britain set up spheres of influence • Motives:Trade, missionary
Major Events in China • Opium Wars – (1839-1842) and (1856 -1860) – British win • British want: • To trade with Opium instead of gold because its cheaper • To get merchants addicted to the drug, so they won’t make good trading decisions • Weaken China to make it more susceptible to Imperialism • Chinese want: • To end destruction to Chinese society caused by Opium which is weakening the country • Stop European imperialism • Chinese lose
Unequal Treaties • Treaty of Nanking – 1st unequal treaty between China and Europeans • Hong Kong – Chinese give up to Britain. Signed a 99 year lease (1898-1997) • Extraterritoriality – Right to live in China under British laws and courts • Western nations gain increasing influence in China
Spheres of Influence • Spheres of Influence - Areas of exclusive trading rights • Example – Germany has an exclusive trading area on the coast of China • Which major country does not have a sphere of influence?
Open Door Policy • Open Door Policy – Equal trading rights • U.S. – wanted open door policy because US was late to imperialize and did not get a sphere of influence • Analyze this political cartoon
Weakening of Qing Dynasty • Sino-Japanese War – (1894-1895) War between China and Japan • Symbolized Chinese weakness from Qing Dynasty and Opium wars and Japanese strength from modernization • Chinese lost Taiwan and it’s influence in Korea
Weakening of Qing Dynasty • Boxer Rebellion – Boxers (Chinese peasants )rebelled against foreign influence • GuangXu – Wanted to strengthen China by importing western technology and ideas • Ci Xi – (GuangXu’s mother) – rejected western ideas and influence. Quing Dynasty ends shortly after her death.
Chinese Nationalism • Nationalism – freedom from foreign rule • Nationalist Revolution (1911-1912) Ends dynastic rule in China • Sun Yat-sen– doctor who led revolution against dynastic rule • Goal: Wanted a strong China free from foreign rule
Analyzing a political cartoon • List the objects or people you see in the cartoon • Who or what is each person symbolizing • What emotions are being portrayed • Describe the actions taking place • Look for any words, captions, or dates • Which words or phrases are most significant? Why? • List any adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon 3. What is the message of the cartoon? Use evidence from #1 and 2 above to support your answer to question 3.
Why did China want to isolate themselves from European trade before Imperialism? • Chinese products were inferior to Western products • China was weak and didn’t want European influence • The Chinese had an abundance of superior goods • Europeans wouldn’t benefit from trade with China
Which of the following is an example of a sphere of influence? • Russia permits foreign businesses into their homeland to increase employment rates. • Italy relies on only oil to create revenue for its businesses and government. • Belgium runs the area of the Congo like a plantation. • Britain opened an exclusive trading port on the coast of China.
What did Sun Yet Sen want for China? • He wanted to strengthen China from Imperialism • He wanted to add more spheres of influence • He wanted China’s influence in the world to decline • He wanted to end the Boxer Rebellion
How was the Boxer Rebellion similar to the Sepoy Rebellion? • Both restored power to previous rulers • Both supported imperialist motives to spread western culture • Both were caused by frustration over foreign influence • Both resulted in reestablishing the power of religious leaders
Which of the following is a result of the Opium Wars and the Treaty of Nanking in China? • China gained equal access to European commercial trade. • Western nations gained increasing influence in China • Western nations granted China independence. • China requested economic assistance from the West
Japan Before Imperialism • Emperor – “God-like” religious and political leader with little power • Shogun – military leader, true leader of Japan • Tokugawa Shogunate– combination of central government and feudalism • Economic Isolationism • uninterested in European products, cut off almost all trade with Europe
Motives and Events • European Motives: • Trade • Major Events: • Matthew Perry • U.S. Commodore sent by Pres. Fillmore demanding trade with Japan. • Black Ships - Power of weapons convinced Japan to sign treaty. • Unfair Treaties • Treaty of Kanagawa – Japan signed a treaty giving trading rights to US, but no comparable rights to Japan • Treaties signed with British, French, Russian, and Dutch later • Shogun overthrown (1868) - due to unhappiness over “unfair treaties”
Meiji Restoration • Meiji Restoration – Emperor returns to rule in centralized form of government • Mutsuhito – “Enlightened Emperor” ; 1st of Meiji rulers • Tried to make Japan a great power by strengthening Japan politically, economically & militarily • Parliamentary government • Strengthened military • Industrialization • Universal Education
Meiji Restoration Industrialization– modernized industry; began own industrial revolution • No loans from west – feared foreign takeover if defaulted • Infrastructure – postal & telegraph networks, railroads, port facilities • Modern Currency – coins and paper money • Growing population – provided cheap labor
Japanese Imperialism • Japanese Motives: • Raw materials, living space, nationalism • Sino-Japanese War • Conflict between China and Japan . • Japan begins own imperialism focus on Korea and parts of China • Russo-Japanese War • Conflict between Russia and Japan over control of Korean peninsula and Manchuria. • Japan wins • 1st time Asian country defeated a European nation
Compare and Contrast Imperialism in China to Imperialism in Japan China Japan
The major goal of the Meiji Restoration was to • to close Japan to any outside trade • to keep Japanese peasants happy by relying on agriculture • to maintain Japanese culture and traditions • to modernize and industrialize Japan
How did imperialism differ in Japan vs. China? • The Japanese became an imperialist nation • The Chinese became an imperialist nation • The Japanese Industrialized while the Chinese did not • Both 1 and 3 are correct