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Prologue sec 1 I. Athens Builds a Limited DemocracyA. Building Democracy • 2000 B.C. Greece established city-state which had their own governments- a system for controlling the society
I. Athens Builds a Limited DemocracyA. Building Democracy 2. Some ruled with a monarchy which meant by a ruler called a king or monarch 3. Others adopted an aristocracy which is a govt. ruled by a small group of noble land owning families 4. The last type was an oligarchy which was formed by a few wealthy merchants & nobility
I. Athens Builds a Limited DemocracyA. Building Democracy 5. Ancient Greek civilization claims the distinction of developing the 1st democracy 6. Democracy means “rule of the people” 7. Citizens were only adult male residents and they were the only ones who had rights
B. Reforms of Solon • Solon established four classes of citizenship with the 3 highest allowed to hold office • This increased participation but citizens were still only a tenth of the population • Also created the legal concept of any citizen brining charges against a wrongdoer
C. Cleisthenes Enacts More Reforms • Cleisthenes is considered the founder of democracy as a result of his reforms • He reorganized the assembly to balance the power between rich and poor • Also created the council of 500 which allowed citizens to participate in the govt.
II. Greek Democracy ChangesA. Pericles Strengthens Democracy • Strengthened govt. by paying public officials and jurors which allowed poorer citizens to participate in the govt. • Athens evolved into a direct democracy which means a govt. that has its citizens rule and make laws directly rather than through representatives
B. Greek Philosophers Use Reason • They used logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society & morality • The first great philosopher was Socrates who is credited with the Socratic method of question and answer; 2nd Plato who wrote the Republic which stated that rulers would be the wisest ¬ most powerful; Lastly, Aristotle who wrote Politics
C. Legacy of Greece • Developed direct democracy in order to allow citizens to participate in govt. & political decisions • Developed 3 branches of govt.-legislative, executive, & judicial
III. Rome Develops a RepublicA. From Kingdom to Republic • Roman aristocrats overthrew a Roman king in 509 B.C. and formed a new govt. called a republic-a form of govt. in which the power rests with the citizens who have the right to elect leaders who make govt. decisions • Two groups struggled for power the patricians (rich) & plebeians (common folk)
B. Twelve Tables • These were 12 laws that were created to keep fairness and protection for all free citizens
C. Republican Government • Govt. was separated into a legislative branch called the senate and two assemblies • The senate was made up of the patricians and they controlled foreign and financial affairs