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URBAN RESILIENCE AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CITIES.
Latin American cities and metropolitan regions contribute to climate change and, at the same time, are vulnerable to their impacts. This vulnerability is due to their complex nature, but it is also aggravated by the absence or poor conditions of urban infrastructure and by the concentration of poor residents in high risk areas.
The global and local climate changes can increase the risk of a number of disasters in Brazilian cities, with great social and economic losses. The increase in heavy rainfall may have two main serious consequences: flooding and landslides, particularly in metropolises, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador and Recife.
The rise in sea levels may also bring serious economic and human losses for the Brazilian coastal cities and metropolises, particularly in northeastern Brazil. In such areas there are large populations, strategic urban infrastructure, important cultural heritage and very high value real estates, as is the case in the Metropolitan Region of Recife.
“Resilience is a process of bringing together a set of adaptive capacities to create a positive trajectory of functioning and adaptation after a disturbance”(Norris et al., 2008)
"Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change, so as to still retain essentially the same function, identity and feedbacks.." (Walker et al., 2004)
A resilient city is a sustainable network of physical systems and human communities. Physical systems are the constructed and natural environmental components of the city, such as the built roads, buildings, infrastructure, communications and energy facilities, as well as its waterways, soils, topography, geology, and other natural systems (Godschalk, 2003)
FACTORS THAT FAVOURS RESILIENCE
THE COMMUNITY RESILIENCE
“I have” (support) – people I can rely on
“I am” (development of intrapsychic strength) – being loved, loving and respecting others – taking responsibility for own actions and confidence in the future
“I can” (acquiring interpersonal skills and conflict resolution) – facing problems and finding support from others (Grotberg, 2005):
Resilient conduct means preparing for, living with and learning from adverse experiences
No connection between socioeconomic level and resilience, nor between intelligence and resilience or social class and resilience.