Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture. Assembled by Brian Viner and Gene Takle. Questions to consider. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) focused on the following questions:
Assembled by Brian Viner and Gene Takle
The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) focused on the following questions:
What factors influencing agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States are sensitive to climate and climate change?
How could changes in climate exacerbate or ameliorate stresses on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity?
What are the indicators of these stresses?
Carbon dioxide is also the source of carbon for photosynthesis,
and consequently for 99% of all life.
CO2 + H2O + light O2 + organic C + chemical energy
More intense precipitation events
Increased occurrence of damaging floods
D. Herzmann, Iowa Environmental Mesonet
Red= without adaptation
Black=with adaptation (change planting date, cultivar, use of irrigation)
IPCC, 2007:Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976pp. Chapter 5.
Longer growing season
Warmer spring soil temperatures
Modest or no increase in summer daily maximum temperatures
Increase in nighttime temperatures
Reduced risk of late frost in spring or early frost in fall
More freeze-thaw cycles that will recharge soil moisture in winter
More soil moisture
Higher dew-point temperatures reduces moisture stress
Increased carbon uptake by crops
Higher CO2 increases the water-use efficiency of crops
More precipitation extremes
More rain events bring heavy rain
More over-wintering pests
More pathogens due to higher humidity
More vigorous weed growth
More efficient water use => less cooling
Example of the Interaction of Temperature and Humidity in Determining Heat Stress Potential in Dairy Cattle
Agriculture may need to reduce emissions because it releases substantial amounts of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide.
Agriculture may enhance its absorption of GHGE by creating or expanding sinks.
Agriculture may provide substitute products which replace fossil fuel intensive products.
- Cotton and other fibers can also be used to reduce petroleum-based synthetics
Agriculture may find itself operating in a world where commodity and input prices have been altered by GHG related policies.
- Increasing fuel taxes and transportation costs will be passed to the consumer