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12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles PowerPoint Presentation
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12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles

12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles

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12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles

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  1. 12-3-07Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles FOCUS: W.S. and discuss.

  2. Wilson Fights for Peace Chapter 19 Section 4

  3. Terms and Names Fourteen Points League of Nations Treaty of Versailles reparations war – guilt clause Henry Cabot Lodge

  4. Wilson’s Fourteen Points • Wilson’s plan for world peace • January 18, 1918 • Points 1 – 5 addressed the “causes of the war” • The conference did not include the Central Powers, Russia, or smaller Allied nations

  5. Points 1 - 5 • No more secret treaties • Freedom of the seas for all • Tariffs should be lowered to encourage free trade • Weapons should be reduced to lessen militaristic impulses • Consider colonial people as well as the interests of imperialism

  6. Fourteen Points continued . . . Points 8 – 13 Dealt with boundary changes National groups could decide for themselves what nation they would belong to

  7. Fourteen Points continued . . . Point 14 League of Nations A forum to discuss grievances without having to go to war

  8. Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan • France had two German invasions already • Great Britain just instituted “Make Germany Pay” • Italy wanted control of Austrian territory

  9. The Big Four – the United States, France, Britain, and Italy worked out the details themselves • The Result • Wilson gave up on most of his Fourteen Points • Establishment of the League of Nations

  10. The Treaty of Versailles When: June 28, 1919 Where: The Great Hall of the Palace at Versailles Who: The Big Four The Defeated Nations Why: To sign the treaty

  11. Finally, your turn… • Create a chart of the pros and cons of the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Would you have been an advocate for joining? Why or why not?

  12. 12-4-07Obj: To understand the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and their effects • Focus: Discuss what the 14 points speech was intending to do? Describe what each set of points did and explain? For example, the first 5 points did what? Which do you think was the most important and why?

  13. The Treaty of Versailles • Established 9 new nationsincluding Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia • France and Great Britain were given 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire as mandates • Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine

  14. Germany & the Treaty • Demilitarized Lost most of its air force and navy Army reduced to 100,000 men • Return land to the French

  15. Germany & the Treaty cont. 3. Pay $33 billion in reparations (damages) 4. Had to acknowledge that they were responsible for the war (war – guilt clause)

  16. Weaknesses of the Treaty • Humiliated Germany • The European nations were equally guilty • Ignored the Bolsheviks in Russia • They suffered more casualties than any other nation • Lost more territory in the conference than Germany did(S.U. after ’22 and determined to gain back territory lost!!! Leads to…

  17. Weaknesses cont. . . . • Germany couldn’t pay the reparations bill & the treaty ignored the claims of colonized people • Wilson refused to hear the appeals of a Vietnamese man (Ho Chi Min) who later fought with France and America until his death(…should've listened!)

  18. Opposition to the Treaty Some Americans opposed the treaty • Believed it was too harsh • A sellout to imperialism • New boundaries didn’t satisfy their demands for self -determination

  19. Debate over the League of Nations • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge • Suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression • Wilson was concerned that the Senate may not approve the peace treaty • Appealed to the American people instead of the Senate

  20. Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and delivered 35 speeches in 22 days to appeal to the American people • October 2, 1919 Wilson’s fragile health and demanding schedule caused him to have a stroke and was partially paralyzed for 2 months

  21. Voting on the Treaty November 1919 • Senator Lodge introduced amendments to the treaty when it came up for a vote • Senate rejected the amendments but also did NOT ratify the treaty March 1920 • Senate rejected the amendments and still did NOT ratify the treaty

  22. Finally . . . • United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 • United States never joined the League of Nations • United States was an “unofficial observer” at League meetings

  23. The Aftermath of War(Pershing) • Many Germans were shocked by the armistice and angry at the Treaty • Germany was in an economic depression • Millions of workers lost their jobs • German currency was nearly useless

  24. The Aftermath of War cont. . . • Austrian corporal, Adolf Hitler, blamed German problems on Jews and socialists in the Weimar republic • Hitler and his Nazi party won control of the German government

  25. The Aftermath of War, cont . . . • This militaristic policy led directly to the Second World War • Most Americans just wanted to “return to normalcy”

  26. And Finally…Create a chart listing the provisions and results of the Treaty of Versailles