World War II. Unit 9. Setting the Stage. The Great Depression devastated economies around the world and people began to look for strong leaders . Japan, Italy, Russia and Germany were all angry over the Treaty of Versailles and believed they deserved land .
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World War II Unit 9
Setting the Stage • The Great Depression devastated economies around the world and people began to look for strong leaders. • Japan, Italy, Russia and Germany were all angry over the Treaty of Versaillesand believed they deserved land. • Nationalismwas spreading throughout the world.
Dictators around the World Soviet Union • Created a model communist state • Had abolished all privately owned farms and replaced them with collective farms • Focused more on industrialization instead of necessities like food and clothing in his 5 year plan • Millions starved to death • Great Purge- killed millions of supposed traitors • Established atotalitariangovernment where one person controls everything
Italy • Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) • Believed Italy should have been given more land in the Versailles Treaty (WWI) • Suffering from an economic depression and high unemployment, Mussolini formed the Fascist Party, which emphasized nationalism and the supreme authority of the leader. • Outlawed political parties, took control of the media, created a secret police, and organized groups to indoctrinate the youth. • Eventually, he took control of Ethiopia (Africa)
Germany • Adolf Hitler • Promised the people he would fix the economy and gain back land that was taken • Wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”)- autobiography criticizing ideologies, politics, and Jews. • Get land, build up military, get revenge for Treaty of Versailles, fix economy, create “master race” • Joined Nazi Party- extreme nationalism • 1933-appointed chancellor of Nazi Party • 2014: Only 81 years earlier!
Japan • Emperor Hirohito • In the 1930s, Japan suffered economic problems. • Unlike Germany and the Soviet Union, Japan remained a constitutional monarchy. • Power shifted towards military control and attacked Manchuria, a region in northeastern China. • Controlled foreign and domestic policies there. • In 1937, Japan moved against China, gaining control over major Chinese railroad links and coastal areas. • In Nanjing, China, Japanese soldiers murdered more than 200,000 residents and burned a section of the city- “Rape of Nanjing”
Dictators Turn to Aggression • The League of Nations never recovered from America’s refusal to join it. • Hitler directly defied the Treaty of Versailles by enlarged the army, navy, and air force. • Germany began violating the Treaty of Versailles • Began to build up the military • Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, a buffer zone between France and Germany • The League of Nations did nothing • Italy invaded Ethiopia • League of Nations did nothing
Promoting the notion of appeasement (the policy of granting concessions to the enemy in the hope that it will maintain peace), Great Britain and France were fearful of another World War. • The United States condemned Japan for their brutal actions in Nanjing, but embraced isolationism due to the economic depression at home.
The U.S. Response • Most citizens wanted to stay out of European affairs • Isolationism • Congress passed the Neutrality Acts • Outlawed the sale of arms or loans to nations at war or engaged in a Civil War • President Roosevelt found neutrality hard to follow • Sent arms to China to help fight Japan
Aggression in Europe • Germany, Italy, and Japan continued to be aggressive • Hitler took Austria in March 1938 • Nobody did anything • Hitler now wanted Czechoslovakia, especially an area called Sudetenland • France and Britain meet to discuss what to do (Manchurian Conference) • Decided to let Hitler have Sudetenland to avoid war • Appeasement- giving up principles to pacify aggressors
What was Soviet Union doing? • At first the Soviets declared neutrality. • Hitler wanted to make an agreement with the Soviets to protect his future plans of invading Poland • Non-Aggression Pact- Stalin and Hitler signed this pact and agreed to never attack each other
Poland • France and Britain agreed if Hitler tried to take Poland they would get involved. • Hitler invades Poland on September 1, 1939. • Hitler used his newest military strategy Blitzkrieg. • Lightning war • Fast planes and tanks • On September 3, 1939, France and Britain declared war on Germany. • WWII begins • Poland was not saved and Hitler and Stalin agreed to split it.
Offensive Germany • Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France was then quickly conquered by the German offensive.
Axis Powers v. Allied Powers Axis Powers consisted of Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers consisted of Great Britain, France, China, and eventually the United States and Soviet Union
Battle of Britain • Hitler now wanted Britain • Britain was almost defeated but was saved by three things: • Refusal to give up (last allies standing) • Radar- took the element of surprise out of Germany’s plan • The British smuggled in a German code machine
U.S. increases involvement • The U.S. • Despite isolationist feelings at home the U.S. is increasingly helping Britain • Sending war supplies • When Britain began to run short of funds to purchase cash-and-carry goods in the U.S., President Roosevelt addresses Congress. (January 6, 1941) • In March 1941, Congress approved the Lend-Lease Act. • The act authorized Roosevelt to “sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend…” articles whenever necessary.
America Moves Towards War • In response to the fighting in Europe, the United States gradually abandoned its policy of neutrality and provided economic and militaryaid to help the Allies achieve victory.
America’s isolationist views shifted as the Axis Powers invaded more countries. • In 1940, the U.S. started limiting Japan on purchases from America. • FDR soon cuts off all oil shipments, hoping to halt Japanese expansion. • In 1941, General Hideki Tojo became the Japanese prime minister. (Supported war against the U.S.) • Japan’s mission was to eliminate the American naval and air presence in the Pacific with a surprise attack.
Japan Attacks the U.S. • Background: During the 1930s, Japan, under the leadership of Hideki Tojo, invaded Manchuria and China as it sought military and economic domination over Asia. • The U.S. refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and in the Pacific and imposed an embargo on exports of oil and steel to Japan. • This resulted in a diplomatic stalemate.
Pearl Harbor: • (December 7, 1941) –Japan carried out an air attack on U.S. naval base in Hawaii • Destroyed a significant part of the Pacific Fleet stationed at pearl Harbor • 2,400 Americans killed • http://www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/attack-pearl-harbor
U.S. abandoned neutrality and isolationism by entering WWII • FDR asked for a declaration of war against Japan • “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy...” • Germany and Italy also declared war on the U.S. • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/speeches#fdr-asks-congress-to-declare-war-on-japan
Mobilizing for War • Following the Japanese attack, a spirit of patriotism and service swept across the country. • Factories halted production of consumer goods and began making goods for war. • The Ford Motor Company poured all of its resources into war production, building over 8,000 B-24 Liberator bombers.
Selective Service Act • Selective Service Act–established a draft before the U.S. entered World War II, expanded greatly following Pearl Harbor • Draft provided 10 million soldiers during the war
Women • Women-Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC or WAC) -allowed women to serve in noncombatant military roles –nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, pilots
African Americans • African Americans • 1 million served in segregated military units and were frequently assigned to non-combat roles • Tuskegee Airmen served in Europe with distinction • http://www.history.com/videos/tuskegee-airman-luther-smith#tuskegee-airman-luther-smith
Asian Americans • Asian Americans: • 50,000 served (mostly Japanese Americans) • Nisei regiments earned a high number of decorations
Native Americans • Native Americans: • 25,000 served in the military in integrated units (not segregated) • Navajo “Code Talkers” –used communication codes based on Navajo language that the Japanese were never able to break
War at Home • Industrial Workers –18 million workers in defense industries • Women increasingly participated in the industrial workforce • SIGNIFICANCE– resulted in the “Rosie the Riveter” image of women at work • African Americans –frequently migrated to industrial cities in search of jobs in war plants
Mass Media and entertainment industries promoted nationalism through propaganda. • Hollywood movies focused on war-oriented propaganda films. • Advertising campaigns used pro-U.S. propaganda and stereotypical anti-German/anti-Japanese to keep public morale up.
Financing the War: • Incometaxes= 50% of the money needed to fight the war • War Bonds= 50% of the money needed to fight the war
Rationing • Rationing– the establishment of fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military • Example: meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, gasoline
Two Theatres of War • War for Europe and North Africa • Strategy: “Defeat Hitler First” • Most American resources went to Europe first • War in the Pacific • Pacific Strategy: “Island hopping” • Seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan, • cutting off Japanese supplies through submarine warfare
Germany’s Goals • Hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly and gain control of Soviet oil fields. • Hoped to force Great Britain out of the war through a bombing campaign (Battle of Britain) and use of submarine warfare before the U.S. could fully mobilize and turn the tide of war in favor of the Allies.
Japan’s Goals • Hoped that U.S. would accept Japanese dominance in the Pacific rather than fight. • After Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines (a U.S. territory) and Indonesia and planned to invade Australia and Hawaii.
Battles and Turning Points • El Alamein(1943)–German forces under Erwin Rommel that threatened to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British • SIGNIFICANCE –German defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the South • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos#north-africa-campaign
Invasion of Italy (1943) • Germany had created a strong line to prevent the Allies from moving north to capture more cities • By 1945, Allied forces broke through the German line and caused the Axis Powers to surrender. • The Allies now had complete control of the western Mediterranean, and ended the rule of Benito Mussolini.
EUROPE Confused old German lady watches U.S. troops march by as they enter a newly occupied town.
Stalingrad (1942-1943) –German forces besieged Stalingrad but were eventually surrounded and surrendered to Soviet forces. • Germany lost 400,000 troops killed, wounded or captured • Soviet Union lost 1,100,000 troops killed, wounded or captured • SIGNIFICANCE–Turning point of the war –Soviet army moved west toward Germany as a result –put Hitler on the defensive • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos#world-war-ii-battle-of-stalingrad
D-Day • Normandy Landings • (June 6, 1944) –3 million American, British, and Canadian troops under the command of Dwight D. Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France at Normandy • SIGNIFICANCE –marked the beginning of the liberation of Europe from Hitler’s control • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos#dday-invasion
Battle of the Bulge (1944) • Hitler refused to surrender and ordered a counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg. • The Germans caught the Allies by surprise, creating a bulge in the American line, and captured several key towns. • At the Belgian town of Bastogne, American forces held out. • This was the largest battle in western Europe during World War II and the largest fought by the U.S. Army. (600,000) • Hitler and his Nazi leaders realized their war had been lost. • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos#at-the-battle-of-the-bulge http://facesbeyondthegraves.com/heath.htmlhttp://www.pararesearchteam.com/Research/EBHeath.htmlhttp://www.in-honored-glory.info/html/stories/ifheath.htm
German Surrender • By April 25, 1945 the Soviets had stormed Berlin • Hitler committed suicide on April 30 • V-E Day • Gen. Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Germans • May 8, 1945 the Allies celebrated V-E Day- Victory in Europe Day
The Pacific • Japan hoped the U.S. would withdraw from the war, leaving them access to natural resources of Southeast Asia. • China will join the Allied Powers. • The Allies will follow an island-hopping strategy, capturingsome Japanese-held islands and ignoring others in a steady path toward Japan.
Battles and Turning Points: Pacific • Midway • “Miracle of Midway” (1942) –American naval forces under Chester Nimitz attacked and defeated a much larger Japanese force • Avenged the U.S. naval defeat at Pearl Harbor and saved Hawaii from Japanese invasion • SIGNIFICANCE–led to the successful “island hopping “ campaign that brought the war closer to Japan • The battle was fought entirely from the air.
Iwo Jima • Iwo Jima(1945) –U.S. Marines attacked and defeated heavily entrenched Japanese forces, but suffered heavy casualties • Flag-Raising Photo–became a symbol for American pride and victory • U.S. casualties = 6,000 killed Japanese casualties = over 20,000 killed • SIGNIFICANCE-The island was important as a staging island for U.S. bomber runs to Japan
Okinawa • Okinawa (1945) –U.S. Marines invaded and conquered the last island needed for final attack on Japan • U.S. casualties = 7,600 killed Japanese casualties = 110,000 killed • Japanese used kamikaze (suicide-plane) attacks on U.S. ships • ManyJapanesesoldiers chose suicide over surrender(kamikaze pilots) • SIGNIFICANCE–convinced U.S. commanders that the U.S. would lose about 1 million soldiers to invade and conquer Japanese home islands • http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos#battle-okinawa
The Atomic Bomb • Manhattan Project- July 1945- American scientists create atomic bomb • Headed by Robert Oppenheimer • Tested in New Mexico-very secret • FDR dies and Harry Truman takes over • Truman ordered the use of the atomic bomb on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (Aug. 6) and Nagasaki (Aug. 9) to force surrender • 200,000 died of injuries and radiation poisoning • Japanese surrender on Sept. 2, 1945 (V-J Day)