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Origins and spread of Nation states in Europe: Westphalia to WWI

Origins and spread of Nation states in Europe: Westphalia to WWI. Creation of Nation-states in post-Renaissance Europe. supplanting city-states and smaller principalities, in post Renaissance Europe changes in military technology favoring mass armies Treaty of Westphalia--1648

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Origins and spread of Nation states in Europe: Westphalia to WWI

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  1. Origins and spread of Nation states in Europe: Westphalia to WWI

  2. Creation of Nation-states in post-Renaissance Europe • supplanting city-states and smaller principalities, in post Renaissance Europe • changes in military technology favoring mass armies • Treaty of Westphalia--1648 • affirming sovereignty of territorial princes over emperors and popes

  3. England, France, and Spain unify early under powerful kings—by 1500s

  4. 19th Century growth of nationalist ideas • Growth of a more powerful and confident “bourgeoisie” • Growing appreciation for one’s national culture—national literature, national music, etc.

  5. 19th century national unifications in Europe--between Napoleon and WWI (1815-1918) • Germany unifying under Prussian leadership • Italy unifying under Piedmont-Sardinia

  6. Nationalism and World War I • 1870s Ottoman Empire receded with uprisings in the Balkans--Serbia gains independence • Bosnia controlled, then annexed by Austria-Hungary 1908 • Serbs thought they should be creating the South Slavic nation

  7. 1914 Serb and Bosnian nationalists kill Austrian Archduke

  8. Result of the assassination • Austria-Hungary, supported by Germany, accuses Serbia of being behind the assassination, and picks a fight with Serbia • Triple alliance of Aus-Hun, Germany, and Italy, (but Italy is “replaced” by Turkey) • Russia supports Serbia, has alliance with France, and England

  9. European combatants--plus over 100 others from around the world

  10. U.S. enters the war • 1917 U.S. enters the war in response to German declaration of “unrestricted” submarine warfare

  11. Revolution in Russia • 1917 Czar’s government crumbles, is replaced by a moderate pro-Western government--continues the war effort • promising peace, Lenin and the Communist Party overthrow the new government--first communist state • 1918 Soviets sue for peace

  12. Soviet concessions

  13. Aftermath--end to empires • Russian empire gives way to Soviet state • Finland, Baltic nations, Ukraine (briefly) independent • German and Austria-Hungarian empires dismantled • Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia • Ottoman empire dismantled • protectorates in Iraq, Syria, Palestine, etc.

  14. Inter-War Europe

  15. Inter-war Middle East

  16. post war settlement • President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points: • “a peace without victory” • national self determination (in Europe) • pt. 14 foundation of League of Nations • League failed ratification in the Senate • Most of the 14 points are ignored--punitive reparations imposed on Germany

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