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IACT901 - Module 1  Planning Theory - Scope & Integration. ABRS Hong Kong 2004 Penney McFarlane University of Wollongong. Types of Planning . Normative Substantive Process. Addresses a Range of Issues. S ubstantive

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iact901 module 1 planning theory scope integration
IACT901 - Module 1 Planning Theory - Scope & Integration
  • ABRS
  • Hong Kong
  • 2004
  • Penney McFarlane
  • University of Wollongong
types of planning
Types of Planning
  • Normative
  • Substantive
  • Process
addresses a range of issues
Addresses a Range of Issues


What do we know about WHAT we are planning & for whom we are planning?


 What do we know about HOW planning takes place & HOW plans are implemented?

definition continued
Definition Continued


·HOW do we plan & why should we plan?


These definitions can be broad enough to include all the previous or more limited

·Any definition will depend largely on HOW one views planning

core is process
Core Is Process
  • TheCore of planning theory is PROCESS
  • HOW should and DO people plan?
planning theory cont
Planning Theory cont.

Explores the planning process and examines its components

·What are they?

·How do they interrelate?

·How are they affected by the context of planning efforts?

·How do they determine planning outcomes?

planning theory history
Planning Theory History

·Started with planning of cities

Can be traced back as far as 2150 BC

·Rationalism key concept

- scientific approach to analysis

- particular way of problem solving

the rational decision making model
The Rational Decision-making Model

·Requires people to consider what they ought to do in light of what it is they want to accomplish

·ie. demands the systematic consideration & evaluation of alternative means in light of the preferred goals they are to achieve

what how planning definitions process
WHAT & HOW? - Planning Definitions & Process

·What is Planning?

1. Planning as a basic activity pervading human behaviour at the individual & every social level

·“a process - of human thought & action based upon that thought - forethought - which is a very general human activity”

types of planning1
Types of Planning
  • 2. Planning as public intervention
  • “all those making decisions about the allocation & distribution of public resources”, are in fact, planning
types of planning2
Types of Planning

3. Planning as a deliberate action

  • In general, “planning is a procedure for arranging beforehand, by deliberately sequencing actions so as to achieve an objective” - or it is “a process for determining appropriate future actions through a sequence of choices”
planning theory cont1
Planning Theory cont.

4. A sequential, multistage process in which many of the phases are linked to their predecessors by feedback loops 

·May lead to reappraisal of goals & objectives

when you plan
When You Plan

Monitoring & evaluation of the impacts of plans or programs may reveal new problems

These become the stimulus for a new round of planning

accepted definition
Accepted Definition

Planning Definition (synthesised) Alexander (1993)

  • “the deliberate social or organisational activity of developing an optimal strategy of future action to achieve a desired set of goals, for solving novel problems in complex contexts, and attended by the power & intention to commit resources & to act as necessary to implement to chosen strategy”
major components of planning
Major Components of Planning

1.Problem Diagnosis

Depends on the image of the desired state which acts as a point of reference

·Gives form to specific goals, general norms, standards, ideologies, even utopian visions

  -In most cases problems not defined clearly

-Aims the thrust of the solution

major components of planning1
Major Components of Planning

2. Goal Articulation

Relates to problem definition

Most difficult challenge in planning is translation of vague, incoherent goals into operational objectives

  If this is not done, serious dysfunctions can result

major components of planning2
Major Components of Planning

3. Communication of goals is a major factor in whether the plan, policy or program is successfully implementeddocuments, groups, individuals, talking, inferred via negotiation/bargaining/conflict.

A plan is called for when

you have a…

problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Requires projection into the future in order to estimate conditions, needs & constraints
  • Evaluates & selects alternatives in order to project impacts of alternative proposals under future conditions
  • Estimates future demand for facilities & services

4. Assesses the organisation’s capacity to meet projected needs

design of alternatives
“Design” of Alternatives
  • Not usually thought of when considering the planning process
  • Usually associated with a building (architectural design), tool or product (product design), machine or structure (engineering design) or built environment (urban design)
  • As a stage in the decision-making process
    • “everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones”
planning for your organisation
Planning for Your Organisation

“A mix of search & creativity, which includes at least some, potentially a great deal of information retrieval, processing & transformation”.

  • However, its role in policy-oriented planning has been largely ignored.
  • A good plan must include deliberate design & cannot simply analyse existing options.
  • Plan Testing
  • How would you define planning?
  • What steps consist of constructing a well thought out plan?