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Lecture 4

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  1. And some rin uphill and down dale,Knapping the chucky stones to pieces wi’ hammers,Like saemonyroadmakers run daft –They say it is to see how the warld was made. - Sir Walter RaleighMinerals Lecture 4 Webpage for course (daytime) Webpage for course (nighttime)

  2. Something from the ancient Greek philosopher-scientists

  3. What is a mineral? A naturally occurring inorganic solid made up of an ordered arrangement of ATOMS

  4. Difference between minerals and rocks

  5. Mass (wt.) charge Atoms, three basic parts Protons Neutrons Electrons

  6. nucleus electron cloud Fig. 2.5

  7. Atomic number = Atomic mass number =

  8. Atomic number = number of protons Atomic mass number = number protons and neutrons Example: Carbon (symbol “C”) atomic number = atomic mass number = Therefore, 6 protons, 6 (12-6) neutrons

  9. Periodic Table

  10. A balanced atom has as many electrons as protons

  11. Electrons are not randomly located Occur in “shells” electrons fill shells in a sequential order

  12. 1st shell holds up to 2 electrons2nd shell holds up to 8 electrons3rd shell holds up to 8 electrons

  13. Two rules in Nature: 1. electrons occupy shells in a specific order (inner before outer shells) 2. Outer shell that has electrons in it must be full of electrons

  14. Two rules in Nature: 1. electrons occupy shells in a specific order (inner before outer shells)2. Outer shell that has electrons in it must be full of electrons

  15. Let us develop some characters

  16. Our cast of characters

  17. Our cast of characters outerelement sym + +/- - # wt. sh. Needs Hydrogen H Helium He Carbon C Oxygen O Sodium Na Chlorine Cl Iron Fe Uranium U

  18. So let us meet a hydrogen atom after the Big Bang…

  19. When Harry met Sally Sodium Chlorine

  20. More formulaeCaCO3 (calcite)KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 (muscovite)Ca3Al2Si3O12 (garnet)

  21. Silicate minerals SiO4 tetrahedra Isolated Olivine Chains Hornblend Sheets Mica Framework Feldspar & Quartz

  22. So, what the atoms are and how to go together determines the characteristics of the mineral: crystal shape hardness cleavage chemical properties etc. etc.

  23. Graphite and Diamond