living creatures are organized l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Living creatures are ORGANIZED PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Living creatures are ORGANIZED

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Living creatures are ORGANIZED - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 110 Views
  • Uploaded on

Living creatures are ORGANIZED. All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as… molecules proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids. carbohydrates. proteins. DNA. Living creatures are ORGANIZED.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Living creatures are ORGANIZED' - vanig


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
living creatures are organized
Living creatures are ORGANIZED
  • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as…
    • molecules
      • proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids

carbohydrates

proteins

DNA

living creatures are organized2
Living creatures are ORGANIZED
  • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as…
    • organelles & cells
      • plant cells & animal cells

plant cell

animal cell

getting from there to here
Getting from there to here…
  • Going from a cell to baby….

the original fertilized egg has to divide…

The groups of cells work together to perform the same function as tissue.

Groups of tissue work together as a system

living creatures are organized4
Living creatures are ORGANIZED
  • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as…
    • organs & organ systems
      • respiratory, circulatory, digestive, etc.
what do animals need to make the systems work

food

O2

ATP

What do animals need to make the systems work
  • Animals make energy using:
    • food
    • oxygen
  • Animals build bodiesusing:
    • food for raw materials
      • amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides
    • ATP energy for synthesis

mitochondria

But where do we get the raw material from?

different diets different lives
Different diets; different lives
  • All animals eat other organisms
    • Herbivores
      • eat mainly plants
        • gorillas, cows, rabbits, snails
    • Carnivores
      • eat other animals
        • sharks, hawks, spiders, snakes
    • Omnivores
      • eat animals & plants
        • cockroaches, bears, raccoons, humans
        • humans evolved as hunters, scavengers & gatherers
getting using food
Getting & Using Food
  • Ingest
    • taking in food
  • Digest
    • mechanical digestion
      • breaking up food into smaller pieces (bolus)
    • chemical digestion
      • breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed into cells
      • enzymes
  • Absorb
    • absorb across cell membrane
      • diffusion
      • active transport
  • Eliminate
    • undigested material passes out of digestive system

intracellulardigestion

extracellulardigestion

digestive systems
Digestive systems

Everybody’s got one!

ingestion where it all starts
Ingestion- where it all starts!
  • Mouth
    • mechanical digestion
      • teeth
        • breaking up food
    • chemical digestion
      • saliva
        • enzyme digests starch
          • Carbohydrate (chains of sugars)
        • slippery protein
          • protects soft lining of digestive system
          • lubricates food for easier swallowing
slide12

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach
Stomach
  • Functions
    • food storage
      • can stretch to fit ~2L food
    • disinfect food
      • HCl = pH 2
        • kills bacteria
    • chemical digestion
        • enzyme breaks down proteins
        • In to amino acids

But the stomach is made out of protein!

What stops the stomach from digesting itself?

mucus secreted by stomach cells protects stomach lining

slide14

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

sphincter

sphincter

small intestine
Small intestine
  • Function
    • chemical digestion
      • major organ of digestion & absorption
    • absorption through lining
      • over 6 meters!
      • small intestine has huge surface area = 300m2 (~size of tenniscourt)
  • Structure
    • 3 sections
      • duodenum
      • jejunum
      • Ileum\
duodenum
Duodenum
  • 1st section of small intestines
    • acid food from stomach
    • mixes with digestive juices from:
  • pancreas
  • liver
  • gall bladder
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Digestive enzymes
    • digest proteins – into amino acids
    • digest starch- in to sugars
  • Buffers
    • neutralizes acid from stomach
slide18

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & starch

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

liver
Liver
  • Function
    • produces bile
      • bile stored in gallbladder until needed
      • breaks up fats – nonpolar!

bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver =

iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown

slide20

liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & starch

absorption by small intestines
Absorption by Small Intestines
  • Absorption through villi & microvilli
    • finger-like projections
    • increase surface area for absorption
slide22

small intestines

breakdown food

- proteins

- starch

- fats

absorb nutrients

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & starch

large intestines colon
Large intestines (colon)
  • Function
    • re-absorb water
      • use ~9 liters of water every day in digestive juices
      • > 90% of water reabsorbed
        • not enough water absorbed
          • diarrhea
        • too much water absorbed
          • constipation
you ve got company
You’ve got company!
  • Living in the large intestine is a community of helpful bacteria
    • Escherichiacoli (E. coli)
      • produce vitamins
        • vitamin K; B vitamins
      • generate gases
        • by-product of bacterial metabolism
        • methane, hydrogen sulfide
slide25

large intestines

absorb water

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

small intestines

breakdown food

- proteins

- starch

- fats

absorb nutrients

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & carbs

appendix
Appendix

Vestigial organ

rectum
Rectum
  • Last section of colon (large intestines)
    • eliminate feces
      • undigested materials
        • extracellular waste
          • mainly cellulose from plants
          • roughage or fiber
        • masses of bacteria