Classical and Operant Conditioning . Mae Marcattilio -McCracken. Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849, in Ryazan, Russia.
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Classical and Operant Conditioning Mae Marcattilio-McCracken
Ivan Pavlov • Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849, in Ryazan, Russia. • In 1875, he graduated with a degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences; however, wanting more education in physiology, Pavlov enrolled in the Academy of Medical Surgery. In 1879, he was awarded another gold medal. • In 1881, Pavlov married SeraphimaVasilievnaKarchevskaya, a teacher and had five children: Wirchik, Vladimir, Victor, Vsevolod, and Vera. Wirchik died in childhood.
More Facts… • In 1890, Pavlov was appointed as a professor at St. Petersburg Military-Medical Academy. • During 1891-1900, at the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Pavlov conducted his research on the physiology of digestion. • In 1901, Pavlov was elected as corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. • In 1904, during his Nobel Prize address, Pavlov introduced his findings on conditioned reflexes. • In 1907, Pavlov was elected Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. • In 1912, Pavlov received an honorary doctorate degree from Cambridge University. • In 1915, Pavlov was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honour. • Pavlov died on February 27, 1936 in Leningrad.
It was just an accident… • Ivan Pavlov was a prominent Russian psychologist who conducted Nobel prize-winning research on digestion.He was studying the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs when he stumbled onto what he called “psychic reflexes” . In order to measure the saliva collected by the dogs, a tube was surgically implanted into their salivary gland and then collected the resulting saliva. Reminiscent of many great discoveries, this one was accidental. As his research continued, he noticed that the dogs would start salivating before the meat powder was offered. Pavlov became intrigued and decided to investigate this further. He started paring an auditory stimulus every time he fed the dogs. However, when he stopped the paring he saw that the dogs still salivated to the bell, even without the presence of food. Based on his insight with the understanding of some basic concepts, Pavlov developed his theory…
Classical Conditioning! • Classical conditioning is a type of learning which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. • Only four simple concepts must be learned to understand the theory behind classical conditioning.
UCS: an unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning • UCR: an unconditioned response is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning (comes naturally). • CS: a conditioned stimulus a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response • CR: a conditioned response is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
UCS: meat powder. • UCR: the dogs’ reaction to the meat powder- salivation. • CS: abell • CR: the dog salivating • Pavlov paired the UCS with the UCR. The CS is then paired with the UCS. After a number of trials, the dogs eventually learn that when they hear the bell they will get fed, and consequently start salivating . The CR is still the dogs salivating- only this time they are responding to what was once a neutral stimulus (the bell); but now is called the CS. The numerous trials and paring of the UCS and CS induces the CR, and eventually the paring will disappear (CS left alone) and the UCS won’t be needed anymore to produce a CR.
B.F Skinner • Burrhus Fredrick Skinner was born on March 20, 1904, in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. • In 1922, Skinner attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. • In 1928, at the age of 24, Skinner applied and was accepted into Harvard’s psychology program. • While at Harvard, Skinner invented Skinner box and the cumulative recorder which made it possible for Skinner to study animal behavior. The cumulative recorder logged the number of bar presses. Skinner noticed that the number of bar presses was dependent on what was received following the bar presses and not the preceding stimulus. Skinner called this behavior, "operant conditioning."
More Facts… • In 1936, Skinner married Yvonne Blue. They had their first child, Julie, in 1938. • In 1944, during World War II, Skinner worked on the “Project Pigeon” which trained pigeons to direct bombs by pecking at a target. • In 1943, during Yvonne’s second pregnancy, Skinner designed the “baby tender,” a crib that was designed to be safer than a normal crib. • In 1945, Skinner became Chair of the Psychology Department at the University of Indiana. • In 1948, Skinner joined Harvard University’s psychology department. • Skinner died on August 18, 1990, from leukemia .
Operant Conditioning! • Operant conditioning is an experimental science of behavior concerning the relationship between the behavior of organisms and their environment. • The basic process of operant conditioning is also remarkably simple. The key idea here is reinforcement. • Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response (food is a primary reinforcer).
Two types of Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement : occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding response. • Ex: receiving food after pressing the lever • Negative Reinforcement : is the same; however the response is strengthened due to the removal of an aversive stimulus. • Ex: using the Skinner box in a laboratory- an electric shock is delivered to the rat through the main floor, and the rat presses the lever to turn the shock off (removal of unpleasant stimulus). Therefore, the rat’s predisposition to press the lever increases in order to get rid of the electric shock. .
Punishment: a consequence to an event following a response that weakens the tendency to make that response • Ex: The rodent presses the lever, and receives an electric shock (the tendency to press the lever therefore decreases).
So…. • In essence, the controller can manipulate whatever behavior they want taking in account the numerous trials it takes to change a particular behavior.
Works Cited • Domjan, Michael. The Principles of Learning and Behavior : 4th edition. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1998. • Reynolds, G.S. A Primer of Operand Conditioning Revised. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman Company, 1975. • Weiten, Wayne. Psychology Themes and Variations: 7th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomas Wadswoth Corporation, 2008.