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Chapter 11 : End of the Cold War and Modern America. K Boring US History. 11.1 Conservatism, Reagan, and the End of the Cold War. The Rise of Conservatism.

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the rise of conservatism
The Rise of Conservatism
  • 1960s—some US citizens called for political and social transformation (ex = Woodstock / the youth), but many citizens pushed back against social and political movements and comprised a new conservatism:
      • Believed in traditional values
      • opposed extensive government regulation
      • favored private property rights over newly passed civil rights legislation
      • Supported a strong military to oppose the USSR and communism
the election of 1964
The Election of 1964
  • Election of 1964: first notice in nation of rising conservatism
    • Barry Goldwater—first conservative to win the Republican nomination for president (President Johnson beat him)
      • Impact:
        • Proved that conservatives’ message resonated with many citizens
        • Showed conservatives’ ability to organize well enough to win the nomination of a major political party
        • Goldwater’s argument that legislation violated constitutional property rights allowed him to become the first Republican candidate to win southern states since the end of Reconstruction—ended “Solid South”
questions in your packet using pg 226
Questions in Your packet using pg 226
  • Section = “Ronald Reagan”
ronald reagan
Ronald Reagan
  • Who was the new conservative after Goldwater?
  • Ronald Reagan
  • What was he formerly?
  • actor
  • What type of personality did he have?
  • charismatic
  • What election did he win the presidency and against who?
  • 1980 against President Jimmy Carter (Democrat)
the reagan years
The Reagan Years
  • “Reaganomics”: Reagan’s critics quickly called his economic plan this
    • Based on supply-side economics:
      • Reagan believed that the economy would be stimulated and recover quickest if the supply of goods increased
      • Supported policies and corporate tax cuts that benefited producers (corporations, small business owners, investors, etc)
        • “trickle down theory”—benefits felt by business owners would “trickle down” to consumers and average working class—by cutting taxes, Reagan believed that business owners and employers would spend more money to hire workers and increase production
the reagan years1
The Reagan Years
  • National Debt
  • Ronald Reagan believed two major things needed to happen when he first became president:
    • Size and role of government needed to decrease (he cut taxes and decreased government regulation)
    • US military had to be strengthened (he spent a lot of money building the military)
      • Massive spending + less revenue = record national debt
  • “national debt” = amount of money a country owes as a result of spending more than it takes in as revenue
  • At first= people didn’t care and enjoyed tax cuts, but President George H W Bush had to deal with the debt of the Reagan years
questions in your packet using pg 228
Questions in Your packet using pg228
  • Use this page to answer questions in packet
  • By self
reagan and the evil empire
Reagan and the “Evil Empire”
  • Who did Reagan refer to as the “Evil Empire” and why?
  • USSR—convinced that they couldn’t be trusted and would stop short of nothing but worldwide domination
  • What did he believe about the USSR and an arms race?
  • Their communist economy could not survive an arms race much longer
  • What did he plan to do and why?
  • Built up US military to defend US but also collapse communism in the USSR
  • How much money did he use?
  • $1.5 trillion
reagan and gorbachev the iron curtain comes down
Reagan and Gorbachev / The Iron Curtain Comes Down
  • Who became the leader of the USSR and what kind of leader was he?
  • Mikhail Gorbachev—progressive
  • What did he and Reagan strike up?
  • Unlikely friendship
  • What happened in 1987?
  • They signed a treaty and reduced number of US and USSR missiles in Europe
  • What did Gorbachev realize?
  • USSR economy could not sustain an escalated arms race with the US

What two things did he initiate and what were they?

  • Glasnost—political openness
  • perestroika—restructuring of the economy to allow limited free enterprise
  • What caused the fall of communism in the USSR and satellite nations?
  • Glasnost, perestroika and the economic collapse of communist Eastern Europe
  • When the Berlin Wall fell, what else did?
  • “iron curtain”
  • When was the Cold War over and what happened to the USSR?
  • Early 90s, USSR dissolved
reagan s final years and legacy
Reagan’s Final Years and Legacy
  • Trials:
    • Lebanon 1980s—Reagan committed US forces to Lebanon as part of a UN peacekeeping mission after Israel and Palestinians began fighting again
      • Over 200 US soldiers died as a result of a suicide bombing
      • US withdrew without peace being restored
    • Iran-Contra Affair
      • Embarrassing scandal—US sold weapons to Iran in exchange for US hostages held in the Middle East and the money made was used to illegally fund anti-communist rebels in Nicaragua (the “Contras”)
      • Investigators never determined if he knew about this
paired reading 360 classroom fill in
Paired Reading / 360 Classroom / Fill In
  • Use pg 230-234:
  • First, read the entire section OUT LOUD
  • 360: After you read, create a presidential information “quick look up” including these presidents and 4 important things to remember about them: (See board for how to do this)
    • Ronald Reagan (first section)
    • George H W Bush
    • Bill Clinton
  • Fill in notes afterwards
george h w bush
George H. W. Bush



  • What were the two points of view on foreign oil and their reasoning behind their thoughts?

Saddam Hussein


George H W Bush


Liberation of Kuwait


Believed US should not rely heavily on foreign oil—especially if they didn’t maintain good relations with USA—some called for more oil drilling at home (US)

Some feared drilling in US damage the environment, wanted to pursue alternative sources for fuel

the economy and the election of 1992
The Economy and the Election of 1992
  • Who did Republicans want to win?
  • President George H W Bush
  • Who did Democrats nominate?
  • Bill Clinton
  • Why had Democrats suffered in recent elections?
  • Perceived as “tax and spend liberals”—raise taxes and fund big government
  • Clinton portrayed himself as a “New Democrat” which was?
  • Moderate, between liberal and conservative
  • Who and what made the 92 election so different?
  • Had a formidable third party candidate
  • Why did Perot gain so much support?
  • People felt discontent with the federal government
  • What caused Perot to lose support?
  • Inconsistency—dropped out of race suddenly
  • With how much percent did Clinton win the presidency?
  • Less than 50%

Budget surplus

Control of House and Senate

Series of scandal

Budget deficit

Spending more money than gov’t makes in a year

Contract with America

Final scandal where he denied sexual relations, then admitted to it

Spending less money than gov’t makes in a year

Conservatives promised to cut back spending, cut taxes, and balance the budget

Promoted free trade btwn US, Mexico and Canada-caused controversy

Admitted having an inappropriate relationship

US businesses would move to Mexico


Clinton (dem) and the Republican Congress didn’t agree on budget, gov’t shut down

Increase foreign market, create more jobs in US

House voted to impeach him

US healthcare system



welfare reform instituted by Clinton,

40 million US citizens didn’t have healthcare

Hilary Clinton—create health care program reform

Resigned before he could be impeached

1995 incident between democratic Clinton and republican Congress-resulted in gov’t shutdown

Program that gave every US citizen affordable healthcare


Too expensive

Senate acquitted him

“the end of welfare as we know it”, limits and conditions put on welfare

It would hurt the health care in US


Swing state of Florida

To stop recounts

Al Gore

Confusion b/c of two time zones, panhandle and Florida main-body, votes kept going back and forth, too close and news kept getting the vote wrong

Election in US History

George W Bush

George W Bush

Florida’s vote count

Winner in the Electoral College didn’t win the popular vote

Bush stole election

25 electoral votes

The amount of electoral votes needed to win election

Dems too “dumb” to count correctly, so shouldn’t be able to win anyway


the middle east and rise of terrorism
The Middle East and Rise of Terrorism
  • Since 1948 (founding of Israel) Muslim nations in the Middle East hostile towards Jewish Israelis
    • Many nations refuse to recognize Israel’s existences since they took Palestinian land
    • US helps Israel = Middle East angry at US
      • Caused US to become target of Islamic terrorists: criminals who destroy property or kill innocent civilians in the name of a political or social cause (radical form of Islam—advocates violence to overthrow US and other western nations)
        • Al Qaeda: most formidable and best known Islamic terrorist group
          • Osama bin Laden—founding leader of Al Qaeda—linked to attacks on US military and embassy bombings
the terrorist attacks of 9 11
The Terrorist Attacks of 9/11
  • Date: Sept 11, 2001
  • Terrorists hijacked planes (jetliners) and flew them into:
    • World Trade Center
    • Pentagon
    • one in a route unknown crashed in a field in Pennsylvania
  • World Trade Center collapsed, lives lost, Pentagon enflamed
  • 9/11:brought the reality of terrorism home to the US and shook people’s sense of national security
notes fill in
Notes Fill In
  • Use pg 236-237 to fill in the rest of the notes for 11.3
the war on terror afghanistan war in iraq
The War on Terror—Afghanistan—War in Iraq

Al Qaeda/Osama bin Laden

War in Iraq—believed Hussein had weapons of mass destruction

Formed international coalition to take diplomatic and military action

“war on terror”

Taliban was protecting him, refused to give him up (in Afghanistan)

Prepare and protect nation against future terrorist attacks

WMD – weapons of mass destruction

Operation Enduring Freedom, toppled Taliban and made it difficult for Al Qaeda

Tightened, color-coded terrorist alert system put in place to warn passengers of risks

Democratic govt, opportunities for women, new constitution, building projects

Finally shot and killed bin Laden

Increased, US soldiers have died

Increased authority of US law enforcement agencies, greater latitude in obtaining information

Strike first against terrorists

Obama announced to withdraw troops from Iraq before 2012

Terrorist supported by a national government

Infringing on civil rights

us influence in the middle east
US Influence in the Middle East
  • Where has the US often exercised influence?
  • Middle East
  • Traditionally the US has been the ally of what country?
  • Israel
  • What did Jimmy Carter play a key role in doing?
  • Negotiating a long lasting peace between Egypt and Israel
  • What did he use to do this?
  • Camp David Accords
  • Do we still exercise influence in the Middle East?
  • Yes

What causes the Middle East to resent the US?

  • American ties to Israel
  • What is Iran doing?
  • Building up of nuclear weapons
  • What happened starting in 2011?
  • Wave of revolutions in the Middle East
  • Why will the Middle East remain a region of interest for the US?
  • Oil supplies, key trading routes, important geographic location
practice 11 1 11 2 11 3
Practice 11.1, 11.2, 11.3
  • 11.1—pg 229
  • 11.2—pg 234
  • 11.3—pg 237-238
notes fill in1
Notes Fill In--
  • Read pg 238-242 and as you do—fill in your notes for the section

Racial/cultural diversity in US

Latin America

Differences in income and assets that exist when comparing individuals and/or different populations within a society


Illegal immigrants

US Hispanic population has grown tremendously

Almost all US citizen compares favorably economically

Controversy of bilingualism

In the hands of a relatively small percentage of US citizens

Accommodating for the use of more than one language

White US citizens do better economically

Spanish as well as English

Such practices are disruptive because they hinder newcomers to the SU from learning English and serve to divide rather than unite the US

Inner cities economically worse off

Middle class citizens left the cities for suburbs

Enables immigrants to learn more easily and maintain their cultural identity

Political debate

Less gov’t control, gov’t provide equal opportunity for all citizens to pursue success without hindering the process w/ regualtion or high taxes

Some want existing immigration laws strictly enforced

Say illegal immigrants drain nation’s health care system and public services without contributing enough taxes to cover the costs

Immigrants want a better way of life

Government should get more involved, higher taxes to put revenue into gov’t programs

They fill jobs American won’t do





  • President Barack Obama: The election of _________ proved to be another historic presidential campaign. Having served _____ terms, President George ____ Bush could not run again. The Republican party nominated _________________ from Arizona who made histroy when he became the first Republican to choose a woman to run as his __________________ running mate. She was Alaska's Goveror, __________________. The Democrats nominated ________________, though experts thought they would nominate the former first lady _____________________. Obama became the first _____________________ president in the US.

John McCain


Sarah Palin

Barack Obama

Hilary Clinton

African America




  • The Real Estate Crisis: _______ entered the White House during a challenging economic time. During the 90s and early parts of 21st century, banks and other lenders had greatly relaxed lending standards to finance _______. Lower standards meant more people qualified for loans to purchase _______. More people bought homes and the ____ estate market _______, _____________ increased and many US citizens found jobs related to the housing market. Unfortunately, these loans were _____________ mortgages, which meant that the payment would "balloon" over time to a higher rate. Eventually, people lost ____ and unemployment meant that people could not afford their __________. A record number of people went into _____________ (lost their homes to lenders they could no longer pay back) and this created a ________ of houses on the market. Real estate prices dropped ____________ and the __________ crisis ensue. Construction _________. Many homeowners found themselves ______________ in their mortgages which means that they owed their lender more money than their house was worth.











Real estate


“upside down”



stimulus package








  • The Stimulus Plan: Obama's ____ strategy to deal with the economic crisis involved passing a _____________________. It pumped large _______ of federal money into the economy with the goal of creating __________. This plan also provided __________ of dollars to save several key businesses from going ___________. It also helped prevent the US _______ industry from going under. More than _______ years into Obama's tenure, _______________ continued to rise, the real estate market continued to flounder, businesses still weren't ____________ and it appeared to most citizens that Obama's stimulus had ________.





President Bush



  • Taxes: ______ remain a key area of debate. President Obama and others argue that tax cuts passed under ______________should be ended because it gave too much advantage to big _______and the wealthiest _________. Republicans, however, _______ Obama's policies. They argued that ending ______tax cuts would take more money away from ________ owners at the very time businesses needed money to expand and ____________. They also pointed out that that nation's ____________ citizens already paid a vast majority of taxes and were also the people who ended to own businesses. Opponents argued that forcing them to pay more taxes would only discourage them from hiring people, producing goods, and pumping__________ into the economy




Create jobs









  • Globalization: Due to ____________ and ___________ ties, the world is more connected than ever before. ________________ has resulted in a worldwide _________ and communications that link the ___________ together. What threatens the security or economic stability of ____ nation quickly impacts others as well. As a result, nations like the US have a vested interest, not only in their own _________ and stability, but in the security and ____________ of countries around the world. The ___________________is one example of economic ______________. The EU unites these nations economically and uses the ___________ as a common currency. In recent years, the EU has faced problems as several member countries have built up massive ______. A few of these countries have even come close to going _______________. Such instability can have drastic effects not only in _________, but across the ___________.




European Union (EU)


the Euro




the globe

practice and review
Practice and Review
  • 11.4 Practice = pg 242-243
  • Ch 11 Review = pg 244-246