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Comparative Anatomy General Body Plan. Note Set 2 Chapters 2 & 4 . Pharynx (fair-inks) with slits. Figure 3.1: Pharyngeal arches lateral view and (b) ventral cross section. Pharyngeal arches - associated with slits Anamniotes (lower vertebrates)- have gill slits

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comparative anatomy general body plan

Comparative AnatomyGeneral Body Plan

Note Set 2

Chapters 2 & 4

pharynx fair inks with slits
Pharynx (fair-inks) with slits
  • Figure 3.1: Pharyngeal arches
  • lateral view and
  • (b) ventral cross section.
  • Pharyngeal arches- associated with slits
    • Anamniotes (lower vertebrates)- have gill slits
    • Amniotes- have slits in embryo but gills never form
  • Endodermal pouches- pharyngeal pouch that grows toward surface of animal
  • Ectodermal groove- pharyngeal groove on outside that grows toward each pouch
embryo
Embryo

Figure 3.2: Embryo pharyngeal arches.

Figure 3.3: Embryo development at 1 month.

slide4

(a)

  • In tetrapods, 1st pharyngeal slit becomes auditory tube and middle ear cavity
  • Aortic arches housed by pharyngeal arch

(b)

Figure 3.4: Early pharyngeal devel.. of shark (a) early stage (b) later stage.

slide5

Figure 3.5: Fate of the pharyngeal arches.

  • 1st (mandibular) arch- mandibular and maxillary portions
  • 2nd (hyoid) arch
  • Other arches are numerically named
  • Most vertebrates have 6 pairs of arches
slide6

Figure 3.6: Pharyngeal arches.

  • Each pharyngeal arch contains a cartilage, artery, mesoderm component, and cranial nerve.
body plan
Body Plan
  • Head
  • Trunk
  • Tail

Figure 3.7: Sagittal section of craniate embryo.

slide8
Head
  • Head
    • Cephalization- development of sense organs
    • Protective covering of dermal bone (not replacement bone) or cartilage

Figure 3.8.

trunk
Trunk
  • Somites- muscle masses beside notochord; embryonic structures that turn into bone
  • Coelom- body cavity between gut and body wall, lined by peritoneum

Figure 3.10.

Figure 3.9: Coelom.

trunk cont
Trunk (cont.)
  • Other visceral organ cavities:
    • Heart- pericardium
    • Lungs- pleura
    • Abdomen- peritoneum

Figure 3.12: Pericardium and pleural cavities.

Figure 3.11: Pericardium cavities.

slide11
Tail
  • From body to end of the digestive tract
    • Somites and notochord
    • Innervations
    • Dorsal and ventral aorta
    • Food storage, defense, locomotion
pituitary development
Pituitary Development
  • Stomodeal ectoderm plate pushes inward and forms pocket (Rathke’s pouch) that leads to anterior lobe
  • This invagination meets the dienchephalon’s infundibular process which forms the posterior lobe

Figure 3.13

Figure 3.14

characteristics of vertebrates
Characteristics of Vertebrates
  • Divided into two superclasses: Pisces and Tetrapoda
  • Demonstrate bilateral symmetry
  • Distinguishing features of vertebrates:
    • Presence of notochord
    • Pharynx with slits
    • Dorsal tubular nervous system
    • Developed vertebrae
    • Post anal tail
notochord
Notochord
  • Most primitive endoskeletal structure
    • Jawless fish- n.c. long and enlarged
    • Cartilagenous fish- n.c. surrounded by cartilagenous vertebrae
    • Bony fish and amphibians- n.c. surrounded by larger vertebrae
    • Amniotes- n.c. almost lost
notochord cont
Notochord (cont.)
  • In mammals, between successive centrum are disks
  • Within disks, the notochord is mostly replaced with pulpy nucleus

Figure 3.15: Vertebrae.

Figure 3.16: MRI scan of notochord.

more vertebrate features
More Vertebrate Features
  • Dorsal Nervous System
    • CNS- brain and spinal cord
    • Anamniotes- 10 pairs of cranial nerves
    • Amniotes- 12 pairs of cranial nerves
  • Vertebrae column
    • Backbones
  • Post-anal tail

Figure 3.17: Vertebral column.

anatomical directions
Anatomical Directions

Figure 3.18.

Figure 3.19.

cranial nerves
Cranial Nerves
  • Olfactory
  • Optic
  • Oculomotor
  • Trochlear
  • Trigeminal
  • Abducens
  • Facial
  • Vestibulocochlear
  • Glossopharyngeal
  • Vagus

Amniotes only:

  • Spinal Accessory
  • Hypoglossal

Figure 3.20

literature cited
Literature Cited

Figure 3.1- http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v2/n11/images/nrg1101-858a-i1.gif

Figure 3.2- http://www.ratbehavior.org/images/EmbryoPharyngealArches.jpg

Figure 3.3- http://islam.org.hk/It_is_the_Truth/somites.htm

Figure 3.4, 3.7, 3.8, 3.10, & 3.18- Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Figure 3.5- http://pharyngula.org/images/arch_fates.gif

Figure 3.6- http://connection.lww.com/Products/sadler/imagebank.asp

Figure 3.9- http://www.sci.nu.ac.th/biology/elearning/picture5/7_coelomate.jpg

Figure 3.11- http://mywebpages.comcast.net/wnor/thoraxlesson4.htm

Figure 3.12- http://faculty.southwest.tn.edu/rburkett/A&P%20body%20cavities.htm

Figure 3.13- http://people.musc.edu/~wilburd/Head%20and%20Neck%20I/sld012.htm

Figure 3.14- http://www.cushings-help.com/rathke.htm

Figure 3.15- http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/saortho/chapter_62/62mast.htm

Figure 3.16- http://www.telepathology.com/cases/forum/case17g.jpg

Figure 3.17- http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/footnote.htm

Figure 3.19- http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Terms%20for%20anatomical%20location

Figure 3.20- http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/html/nerv_sys_fin.html