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The Policy Environment for an Institution of Higher Education

The Policy Environment for an Institution of Higher Education

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The Policy Environment for an Institution of Higher Education

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  1. The Policy Environment for an Institution of Higher Education Typically Consists of: • Myriad Separate Policies • Focused on Different Topics • Enacted at Different Times • By Different Policymaking Bodies • For Different Reasons  A Recipe for Contradiction and Confusion

  2. Key Components An Effective Policy Environment Is One in Which the Key Components Are Aligned—Mutually Reinforcing. • Planning and Priority Setting • Finance • Evaluation/Accountability

  3. State Planning Institution State State Resource Allocation Assessment Institution Institution The Management Cycle in a Public Institution

  4. State Policy Objectives • High Rates of High School Completion of Students Who Have Taken an Academically Rigorous Curriculum • High Levels of College Participation of Both Recent High School Graduates and Adult Learners • High Rates of College Degree Completion • High Levels of Degree Production in Selected Fields • An Economy That Employs a High Proportion of College Graduates

  5. Economy Tax Revenues • • • • K-12 Corrections Health Care Other Govt. State and Local Government Higher Education Income DonorsFoundationsCorporations Student Aid Appropriations/Grants Students UH System Tuition Gifts Scholarships &Waivers FederalGovernment Research and Other Grants (Restricted) Student Aid (Restricted) WestOahu Community Colleges Manoa Hilo The Flow of Funds 6

  6. Economy Tax Revenues State and Local Government Income Student Aid Appropriations/Grants Tuition Students UH System Scholarships &Waivers Student Aid(Restricted) WestOahu Community Colleges Manoa Hilo FederalGovernment The Flow of Funds 7

  7. Criteria for Effective Policy • Reinforce State Priorities • Maintain Necessary Institutional Capacity • Contributions Required Are Affordable—State and Students • Viewed as Being Fair • Transparent

  8. Criteria from Perspective of Different Stakeholders State Students Institutions • Maintenance of Institutional Capacity • Promotes Achievement of Priority Outcomes • Affordable • Affordability • Value • Adequacy • Equity • Stability

  9. The Two Purposes of State Funding Policy • Build Core Capacity—General Purpose Funding • Promote Capacity Utilization Around State Priorities—Special Purpose Funding

  10. Who’s Entering the State’s Workforce? The State Workforce and Economy Who’s Leaving the State Workforce? Characteristics of Characteristics of Characteristics of Characteristics ofIn-Migrants Characteristics ofthe Workforce Characteristics ofOut-Migrants Entrants into theWorkforce Economic Conditions Net Gain/Loss Retirement AgesNet Gain/Loss Retirement Ages Retirement Ages State Workforce and Economy

  11. Projected Change in Hawaii’s Population by Age, 2000-20 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Population Projections

  12. Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of U.S. Average—Hawaii, 1960-2000 Actual PCPI Adjusted 125% Source: U.S. Census Bureau

  13. 50 30 40 20 10 0 Educational Attainment and Rank Among States—Hawaii, 2000 (Percent) Age 18-24 withHigh School Diploma Age 25-64 withHigh School Diploma Age 25-64 withAssociate Degree Age 25-64 withBachelor’s Degree or Higher Age 25-64 withGraduate or Prof. Degree 1st 85.8 13th 89.6 3rd 9.5 14th 28.7 20th 8.9 Source: U.S. Census Bureau

  14. 29

  15. UH Community Colleges’Entering Student Placement Fall 2003

  16. 71.1 63.4 60.4 54.3 Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Maine Texas Illinois Alaska Hawaii Florida Indiana Kansas Oregon Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Wyoming Arkansas Delaware California Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Connecticut Washington New Mexico North Dakota Rhode Island West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Percent of Adult Population Participating in the Workforce Source: Tom Mortenson, Postsecondary Opportunity

  17. 69 .2% to 74 .3% 64 .1% to 69 .2% 58 .1% to 64 .1% 50 .0% to 58 .1% 1 .2% to 50 .0% Not Determined Percent of Population Age 16 and Older Participating in the Workforce, 2000 Hawaii = 60.4% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

  18. Number of Workers Entering and Leaving the Workforce in Hawaii Source: U.S. Census Bureau Population Projections

  19. Occupations of Population Age 55-64 (Those Leaving the Workforce by 2010) Relative to Entire Workforce, 2000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5%PUMS Files

  20. Percent of Total Gross State Product by Industry and Comparison to U.S. Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis

  21. Percent of Employed Persons 16 and Older by Industry, 2000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

  22. Percent of Employed Persons 16 and Older by Occupation, 2000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

  23. Median Earnings by Degree Level Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% PUMS Files

  24. Hawaii Employment C Earnings and Job Quality D Equity D Quality of Life D Resource Efficiency A Competitiveness of Existing Bus. D Entrepreneurial Energy F Human Resources C Financial Resources F Infrastructure Resources D Amenity Resources C Innovation Assets C Weaknesses (Bottom 10 Rank) D F F Performance Business Vitality DevelopmentCapacity RankMeasure 41 University Spin-Outs 42 Change in New Companies 42 Private Lending to Small Businesses 42 Sewage Treatment Needs 42 Job Growth Due to New Business 43 Change in Average Annual Pay 44 Venture Capital Investments 45 SBIC Financing 45 Income Distribution Change 45 Electronic Public Services 46 Private R&D 47 Technology Industry Employment 47 Industrial Diversity 48 Crime Rate 48 Air Quality 48 Bridge Deficiency 49 Homeownership Rate 49 Patents Issued 50 K-12 Educational Expenditures 50 Energy Costs 50 Employment Growth: Long Term 50 Involuntary Part-Time Employment 50 Average Teacher Salary 50 Voting Rate Strengths (Top 10 Rank) RankMeasure 1 Per Capita Energy Consumption 2 Toxic Release Inventory 2 Vehicle Miles Traveled 3 Health Professional Shortage Areas 3 Conversion of Cropland to Other Uses 3 Urban Mass Transit 7 Manufacturing Investment 7 Unemployment Rate 7 High School Completion 8 Deaths from Heart Disease 9 Households with Computers 9 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Development Report Card for the States, 2003 Source: Corporation for Enterprise Development

  25. HAWAI`I: EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES

  26. The Education Pipeline

  27. Key Transition Points in the Education Pipeline • Complete High School • Enter College • Finish College • Enter the Workplace

  28. Student Pipeline Of 100 9th Graders, How Many… Source: NCES, IPEDS 2000 Graduation Rates and Fall 2000 Enrollments. U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census. ACT Institutional Survey 2001. Mortenson High School Graduation Rates and College Going Rates.

  29. Hawaii High School Graduate Projections to 2018 by Race/Ethnicity Source: WICHE High School Graduate Projections

  30. 69.4 59.8 56.7 38.1 Iowa Ohio Utah Idaho Maine Texas Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Virginia Kansas Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Louisiana Nebraska New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Connecticut Washington New Mexico Rhode Island West Virginia North Dakota Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire College Going Rates—First-Time Freshmen Directly Out of High School as a Percent of Recent High School Graduates, 2000 Source: Tom Mortenson, Postsecondary Opportunity

  31. Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Oregon Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Arkansas Wyoming California Delaware Louisiana Nebraska New York Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico West Virginia North Dakota Rhode Island Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Percent of First-Time Freshmen Who Attend College Within Their Reported State of Residence, Fall 2002 94.0 84.7 69.6 46.8 Source: NCES, IPEDS Fall 2002 Residency and Migration File

  32. Public Research Public 4-Year Public 2-Year Public Other Private Non-Profit Research Private Non-Profit 4-Year Private Non-Profit 2-Year Private Non-Profit Other Proprietary Net Imports of First-Time Freshmen Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census

  33. Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Virginia Kansas Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming California Delaware Louisiana Nebraska New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island West Virginia North Dakota Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Part-Time Undergraduate Enrollment as a Percent of Population Age 25-44, 2000 10.8 6.2 3.8 3.3 Source: NCES-IPEDS, U.S. Census Bureau

  34. 41.5 23.5 21.1 11.5 Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Oregon Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Wyoming Arkansas California Delaware Nebraska Louisiana New York Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Associate Degrees Awarded per 100 High School Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2002 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, WICHE

  35. Iowa Utah Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Virginia Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Louisiana Nebraska New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico West Virginia North Dakota Rhode Island Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Associate Degrees and Certificates in Health Sciences Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2000 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates, 2000

  36. Iowa Ohio Utah Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Virginia Oregon Kansas Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Arkansas Wyoming California Delaware Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island West Virginia North Dakota Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Associate Degrees and Certificates in Computer Scienceand Business Information Systems Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2000 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 2000

  37. Ohio Iowa Utah Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Virginia Oregon Kansas Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Associate Degrees and Certificates in Engineering Technology Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2000 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 2000

  38. Utah Ohio Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Hawaii Florida Indiana Kansas Oregon Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Wyoming Arkansas California Delaware Louisiana Nebraska New York Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Connecticut Washington New Mexico West Virginia Rhode Island North Dakota Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Associate Degrees and Certificates in Biological Sciences and Science Technology Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Three Years Earlier, 2000 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 2000

  39. 98.5 50.8 39.4 22.3 Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Virginia Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded per 100 High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 2002 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions Survey, WICHE

  40. Iowa Utah Ohio Idaho Maine Texas Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Oregon Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Kentucky Maryland Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Nebraska Louisiana New York Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico North Dakota Rhode Island West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Baccalaureate Degrees in Education Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 1997 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 1997

  41. Utah Ohio Iowa Idaho Maine Texas Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Virginia Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Delaware California Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Connecticut Washington New Mexico North Dakota West Virginia Rhode Island Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Baccalaureate Degrees in Health Sciences Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 1997 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 1997

  42. Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Kansas Virginia Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming California Delaware Nebraska Louisiana New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Baccalaureate Degrees in Computer Science and Business Information Systems Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 1997 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 1997

  43. Utah Iowa Ohio Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Hawaii Alaska Florida Indiana Virginia Kansas Oregon Arizona Nevada Georgia Missouri Vermont Montana Alabama Michigan Colorado Maryland Kentucky Wyoming Arkansas Delaware California Louisiana Nebraska New York Wisconsin Oklahoma Minnesota Mississippi Tennessee New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico North Dakota Rhode Island West Virginia Pennsylvania United States South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire Number of Baccalaureate Degrees in Engineering Awarded (2003) Per 100 High School Graduates Six Years Earlier, 1997 Source: NCES-IPEDS Completions 2002-03; WICHE High School Graduates 1997

  44. Migration

  45. 806 607 1,151 -5,778 -2,132 -11,761 -819 -1,787 2,108 -1,962 1,187 603 2,301 -20,078 -3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 -25,000 -20,000 -15,000 -10,000 -5,000 0 5,000 Hawaii Net Migration by Degree Level and Age Group 22- to 29-Year-Olds 30- to 64-Year-Olds Less than High School High School Some College Associate Bachelor’s Graduate/Professional Total Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files

  46. Military Enlisted Tactical Operations & Air/Weapons Specialists & Crew Cooks & Food Preparation Workers Military Officer Special & Tactical Operations Leaders/Managers First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisor/Managers Electrical & Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, & Repairers Other Military Occupations Operations Specialties Managers Vehicle & Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, & Repairers Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners Air Transportation Workers Retail Sales Workers Computer Specialists Financial Specialists Material Recording, Scheduling, Dispatching, & Distributing Workers Law Enforcement Workers Supervisors, Sales Workers Financial Clerks Other Production Occupations Material Moving Workers Construction Trades Workers Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports, 1995-2000 All 22- to 29-Year-Olds Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% PUMS Files

  47. Military Officer Special & Tactical Operations Leaders/Managers Operations Specialties Managers Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners Air Transportation Workers Food & Beverage Serving Workers Other Management Occupations Postsecondary Teachers Information & Record Clerks First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisor/Managers Lawyers, Judges, & Related Workers Other Office & Administrative Support Workers Business Operations Specialists Media & Communication Equipment Workers Secretaries & Administrative Assistants Financial Clerks Law Enforcement Workers Sales Representatives, Services Financial Specialists Construction Trades Workers Computer Specialists Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports, 1995-2000 22- to 29-Year-Olds with College Degrees Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% PUMS Files

  48. Agricultural Workers Building Cleaning & Pest Control Workers Cooks & Food Preparation Workers Textile, Apparel, & Furnishings Workers Other Food Preparation & Serving Related Workers Social Scientists & Related Workers Other Protective Service Workers First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisor/Managers Grounds Maintenance Workers Fishing & Hunting Workers Supervisors, Office & Administrative Support Workers Secretaries & Administrative Assistants Law Enforcement Workers Other Installation, Maintenance, & Repair Occupations Construction Trades Workers Operations Specialties Managers Supervisors, Sales Workers Computer Specialists Information & Record Clerks Business Operations Specialists Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports, 1995-2000 All 30- to 64-Year-Olds Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% PUMS Files

  49. Other Protective Service Workers Social Scientists & Related Workers Other Military Occupations Agricultural Workers First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisor/Managers Building Cleaning & Pest Control Workers Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners Supervisors, Food Preparation & Serving Workers Other Education, Training, & Library Occupations Supervisors of Installation, Maintenance, & Repair Workers Other Management Occupations Military Enlisted Tactical Ops. & Air/Weapons Specialists & Crew Financial Clerks Law Enforcement Workers Supervisors, Office & Administrative Support Workers Operations Specialties Managers Business Operations Specialists Financial Specialists Supervisors, Sales Workers Computer Specialists Occupations with High Net Imports and Exports, 1995-2000 30- to 64-Year-Olds with College Degrees Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census; 5% PUMS Files

  50. Base-Plus • Formulas • Investment Funds Tuition and Aid Policy Focused on Revenue Generation Tuition and Aid Policy Focused on Attainment of Specified Outcomes Performance Funding • Need-Based • Merit-Based Finance Policy—The Options Institution Student Focused Focused Core Capacity CapacityUtilization/Public Agenda