Ancient Civilizations World History Mrs. Mooneyhan
Mesopotamia is at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent.It lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Due to their system of irrigation and increased food supply, the population increased. • Mesopotamia covered three areas: Assyria, Akkad, and Sumer.
Politics • The political unit of the Sumerians civilization was the city-state. • A city-state is a self-governing state consisting of a city and surrounding territory.
Religion The temple was the most important building in the city. They were built on top a ziggurat.
Government • The Sumerians believed in a theocracy, or the leader of the government being divine.
Mesopotamian wheel Mesopotamian wheel developed around 3,000 BC
Social • Three classes of society: • Nobles • Commoners • Slaves
Akkadians • The Akkadians lived north of the Sumerian city-states. • Sargon conquered the Sumerian city-states and created the world’s first empire.
Hammurabi In 1792 BC, Hammurabi of Babylon established a new empire over much of Akkad and Sumer.
Code of Hammurabi • One of the earliest set of written laws • Focuses on the law of retribution
Mesopotamian Religion 2000-1600 B.C. c.2000-1600 B.C. Akkad period c.2330-2150 B.C. Akkad period Mesopotamians were polytheistic.
Epic of Gilgamesh The most important piece of Mesopotamian literature.
c.2330-2150 B.C. Akkad period 3300–2900 B.C.; Late Uruk
The Nile is the longest river in the world at 4,000 miles long. It is divided into two parts: Lower Egypt in the north and Upper Egypt in the south.
Religion • Egyptians were polytheistic. • Their gods are divided into land gods and sun gods.
The Old Kingdom lasted from 2700 to 2200 BC. A bureaucracy developed during the Old Kingdom. • Bureaucracy means a group of nonelected government officials. • Egypt was divided into 42 providences, each with its own governor.
King Khufu and Great Sphinx Built in Giza around 2540 BC
The New Kingdom lasted from 1567 to 1085 BC. Egypt created an empire during this kingdom.
Akhenaton tried to make Egypt monotheistic. Tutankhamen restored polytheism.