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Ancient Civilizations

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  1. Ancient Civilizations World History Mrs. Mooneyhan

  2. Mesopotamia is at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent.It lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

  3. Due to their system of irrigation and increased food supply, the population increased. • Mesopotamia covered three areas: Assyria, Akkad, and Sumer.

  4. Ruins at Ur

  5. Ruins at Uruk

  6. Politics • The political unit of the Sumerians civilization was the city-state. • A city-state is a self-governing state consisting of a city and surrounding territory.

  7. Religion The temple was the most important building in the city. They were built on top a ziggurat.

  8. Government • The Sumerians believed in a theocracy, or the leader of the government being divine.

  9. Mesopotamian wheel Mesopotamian wheel developed around 3,000 BC

  10. Social • Three classes of society: • Nobles • Commoners • Slaves

  11. Akkadians • The Akkadians lived north of the Sumerian city-states. • Sargon conquered the Sumerian city-states and created the world’s first empire.

  12. King Sargon

  13. Hammurabi In 1792 BC, Hammurabi of Babylon established a new empire over much of Akkad and Sumer.

  14. Code of Hammurabi • One of the earliest set of written laws • Focuses on the law of retribution

  15. Mesopotamian Religion 2000-1600 B.C. c.2000-1600 B.C. Akkad period c.2330-2150 B.C. Akkad period Mesopotamians were polytheistic.

  16. CuneiformMesopotamian writing system

  17. Epic of Gilgamesh The most important piece of Mesopotamian literature.

  18. c.2330-2150 B.C. Akkad period 3300–2900 B.C.; Late Uruk

  19. Egypt

  20. The Nile is the longest river in the world at 4,000 miles long. It is divided into two parts: Lower Egypt in the north and Upper Egypt in the south.

  21. Religion • Egyptians were polytheistic. • Their gods are divided into land gods and sun gods.

  22. The Sun god: Atum or Re

  23. Osiris: river and land god

  24. Isis: river and land god

  25. Menes

  26. The Old Kingdom lasted from 2700 to 2200 BC. A bureaucracy developed during the Old Kingdom. • Bureaucracy means a group of nonelected government officials. • Egypt was divided into 42 providences, each with its own governor.

  27. Pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom.

  28. The process of mummification took about 70 days.

  29. King Khufu and Great Sphinx Built in Giza around 2540 BC

  30. The New Kingdom lasted from 1567 to 1085 BC. Egypt created an empire during this kingdom.

  31. Hatshepsut:First female pharaoh

  32. Akhenaton tried to make Egypt monotheistic. Tutankhamen restored polytheism.

  33. Ramses II ruled from 1279 to 1213 BC.

  34. Ramses II

  35. Cleopatra VII tried to unite with Rome.

  36. HieroglyphicsEgyptian writing form

  37. Carthage

  38. Carthage

  39. Phoenician Alphabet

  40. King Solomon

  41. King Solomon’s Temple

  42. Isaiah

  43. Zoroaster