The Rise of Mussolini in Italy. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945). What Problems did Italy have after WWI?. 460,000 soldiers killed Heavy debt Coalition Governments Rising unemployment, decline of lira, rising bread prices, shortages of coal led to unrest in cities
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The Rise of Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
What Problems did Italy have after WWI? • 460,000 soldiers killed • Heavy debt • Coalition Governments • Rising unemployment, decline of lira, rising bread prices, shortages of coal led to unrest in cities • Peasants seized land from wealthy • Workers strike in cities • Chaos
How did The Treaty of Versailles contribute to Italy’s problems? • Italy had not been given the land promised at the Secret Treaty of London. • Italy’s foreign Minister Orlando left before the conference ended, feeling humiliated. Stupid TOV NO Land
How does Mussolini gain power? • Promises, Promises • Wealthy - Protect Private Property • Worker - Full employment, workers benefits • Nationalists - rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire • “Blackshirts” – attacked and intimidated political opponents
What was the 1922 March on Rome? • Purpose: establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in Italy • Mussolini said this at a party conference: "Either the government will be given to us or will shall seize it by marching on Rome."
How did Mussolini Become Il Duce? • Result of the March on Rome – Legislature wanted to establish marshal law • Instead, Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy • Ends democratic rule and names himself Il Duce – “The Leader”
What type of government existed under Mussolini ? Fascist - still allows individual ownership of land, factories, business…but.. Totalitarianism Dictatorship Elimination of opposition Propaganda…etc. etc.
What is a Corporate State? • Representation by syndicates - groups of workers and corporations in the same industry • Each syndicate sent representatives to legislature in Rome that set policies on wages & production • Only fascist political party exists. • “Fascism should rightly be called • Corporatism as it is a merge of state • and corporate power.”~ Benito Mussolini
Solved unemployment problem Restored patriotism and nationalism and recaptured Italy’s greatness Made the trains run on time Many Italians supported him until…. What did Mussolini do to improve Italy?
Formative Who were the blackshirts? How did Mussolini get into power?
Mussolini and Hitler Hitler and Mussolini had a close relationship. In October 1936 they signed a non-military alliance. Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel. Mussolini and Hitler
Italy during WWII Mussolini intended to annex Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He wanted to create a “New Roman Empire.” He annexed Albania, straining the military. His troops were unprepared for the German invasion of Poland. Italy remained neutral. Mussolini during WWII
Italy during WWII cont’d Italy soon declared war on Britain and France but troops were unprepared. It was defeated by Greece and lost the world’s first carrier strike. Italy was defeated on all fronts of the Anglo-American landing. Mussolini
Quote from Mussolini’s speech in Rome February 23, 1941 • “We are not like the English. We boast that we are not like them. We haven't elevated lying into a government art nor into a narcotic for the people the way the London government has done…when the enemy wins a battle it is useless and ridiculous to seek, as the English do in their incomparable hypocrisy, to deny or diminish it.”
Mussolini’s Execution Mussolini was taken prisoner by the partisans and was joined by his mistress, Clara Petacci. A few days later they were shot to death. In April of 1945, their bodies were hung at an Esso gas station along with the bodies of other fascist leaders. Mussolini and his mistress
Questions • What were some of the problems that Italy faces after WWI? • Why did Italians feel betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles? • What is fascism, and how did Mussolini gain control of the Italian government? • How did Italy fare during WWII? • What happened to Mussolini?
Credits • http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/MussoliniThis is a detailed biography of Mussolini. It was a good source because it explains fascism and Italy during WWII. accessed 5/29/03 • http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/modern/fascism/fascihtm.htmWe found this site to be the most helpful. We got some fascism and the Treaty of Versailles information from this site. accessed 5/29/03. • http://members.aol.com/Custermen85/ILDUCE/Mussolini.htmThis site explained the execution of Mussolini in great detail. We took the picture from his execution from this site. accessed 5/29/03. • http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg18/pg7/pg18787.htmlThis site shows the history of Mussolini in pictures. We got a lot of our pictures from this site. accessed 5/30/03. • http://gi.grolier.com/wwii/wwii_mussolini.htmThis site explains Italy during WWII and has many good details. We got the majority of the information about WWII from this site. accessed 5/29/03. • http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/classroom/alevel/musso1.htmThis site had the diagram of fascism under Mussolini. accessed 5/30/03. • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWmussolini.htmThis site explains Mussolini’s rise to power and Italy’s involvement in WWII as well as the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles. accessed 5/30/03.
Credits cont’d • http://images.google.com/imagesThis site was helpful when we were searching for pictures and maps. • http://quotes.telemanage.ca/quotes.nsf/QuotesByCatPerson!ReadForm&RestrictToCategory=Benito+MussoliniThis site has quotes from Mussolini about fascism. • http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1941/410223a.htmlThis site had an entire speech that Mussolini gave in Rome in 1941. We took a quote from this speech. • http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/march_on_rome.htmThis site explained the March on Rome. This is where we got all of the information about the March on Rome. • http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0255/img0023.jpgThis is where we got the picture from the March on Rome. • http://www.geocities.com/schutze_games/MarchCov.gifThis is where we got the map of the March on Rome.