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Congenital Anomalies of the heart. DR RANIA GABR. objectives. Discuss the congenital anomalies related to the heart development. Atrial Septal defects: Septum Primum Defect: Defect in the interatrial septum Due to absence of the septum Primum (Patent foramen ovale ).

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objectives
objectives
  • Discuss the congenital anomalies related to the heart development.
slide3

Atrial Septal defects:

  • Septum Primum Defect:

Defect in the interatrial septum

Due to absence of the septum

Primum (Patent foramen ovale)

slide4

Septum Secondum Defect:

Defect in the interatrial septum

Due to absence of the septum

Secondum(Patent foramen

Secondum)

slide5

Complete absence of the interatrial septum (Core TriloculareBiventriculare):

There is complete absence of both septum primum and septum secondum. i.e. there is a common atrium.

slide6

Patent osteumprimum:

  • The foramen primum may fail to close inspite of formation of the foramen secondum .
  • This will cause disturbance in the valvular mechanism of the interatrial septum.
slide7

Patent foramen ovale:

  • Mentioned before
slide8

Persistent atrioventricular canal:

  • The A-V cusions and the septum intermedium fail to develop.
  • The A-V canal remains divided into rt and lt parts.
  • There is usually:
  • 1- Patent foramen primum
  • 2- IV septaldefect
  • 3- Abnormalities in the leaflets of the valves guarding the A-V canal.
slide9

Ventricular Septaldefects:

Usually in the membranous part

slide10

Tetralogy of Fallot:

Four co-occurring heart defects:

• Pulmonary stenosis

• Right ventricular hypertrophy

• Ventricular septal defect

• Overriding aorta (dextroposition)

slide12

Eisenmenger'ssyndrome:

Characteristics of Eisenmenger's syndrome summarized as:

  • persistent truncusarteriosus
  • ventricular septal defect
  • left-right ventricular shunt
  • right ventricle hypertrophy
slide13

Congenital Aortic valve stenosis:

  • Occurs due to fusion of the cusps of the aortic valve .
  • Very narrow aortic orifice will cause Lt ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Regurge of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle will increase the ltventr. Hypertrophy.
slide14

Congenital Aortic valve atresia:

  • Under developed lt ventricle
  • Narrow ascending aorta
  • Patent ductusarteriosus to carry the blood into the aorta
slide15

Pulmonary atresia

  • The pulmonary artery is underdeveloped, the right ventricle very small.Thecondition is also sometimes referred to as hypoplastic right heart.
slide16

Transposition of the great arteries:

  • Most common cyanotic neonatal heart defect

• Failure of aorticopulmonary septum to

take a spiraling course

• Fatal without PDA, ASD, & VSD

slide18

EctopiaCordis:

  • The heart is bulging outside the chest due to wide separation in the 2 parts of the sternum
slide19

Dextrocardia:

  • The heart and great vessels are reversed as in mirror image
  • It might be a separate condition or part of Situsinversus