high energy neutrino astrophysics n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
High-Energy Neutrino Astrophysics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
High-Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46
valerian

High-Energy Neutrino Astrophysics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

102 Views
Download Presentation
High-Energy Neutrino Astrophysics
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. High-Energy Neutrino Astrophysics • Tom Weiler • Vanderbilt University Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  2. The Cosmic Ray Timeline 1912 Hess (Austrian) balloons to 5km, his sparks increase; also sees no change during solar eclipse 1929 Cloud chambers, and the birth of particle physics: 1933 Anderson’s positron; Kunze’s muon (Rostock) 1937 Anderson’s muon 1938 Auger’s remarkable PeV air-shower 1949-54 Fermi’s “Doppler” acceleration via magnetized shocks 1966 3K CMB discovered; GZK predict cutoff at 5x1019 eV (But Linsley already reported (PRL) event at 1020 eV) 1987 IMB/Kamiokande neutrinos from SN87a Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  3. Auger, in 1938, separated two particle counters by a km high in the Swiss Alps (Jungfrau, near Bern), he discovered coincident signals. He calculated ETOT to be about 1015 eV. His inference was correct. His energy was 107 times the prior record event, And now thought to be typical of emission from a SN remnant. AUGER’s key discovery Cospar2004

  4. 1991 Fly’s Eye reports 3x1020 eV, with proton-like profile; Akeno/AGASA Xpt begins  mid-90s DUMAND taken off life-support; Baikal continues  90s SuperK neutrinos from the sun (directional astro)  1996 AGASA reports event clustering within 2.50 ang. res’n and: F(E  1020 eV) ~ 1/km2/century, withshower diameter ~ 5km, N(e) ~ 1011  2000 20 events at and above 1020 eV  2001 HiRes withdraws 7 events;AGASA adds 6 (from z > 45o); And the controversy has begun! Importantly, Auger gets first “light”  2002 AMANDA pushes to 1014 eV thru-Earth neutrinos   2005 Auger Observatory data expected  2008 Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) ? Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  5. CR Spectrum above a TeV from Tom Gaisser VLHC (100 TeV)2 Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  6. Highest Energy Event The CR record energy is 3x1020 eV (0.3 ZeV). Found by Fly’s Eye a decade ago (they got lucky!). This is truly a macroscopic energy: 3x1020 eV = 50 Joules equivalent to a Roger Clemens fastball, a Tiger Woods tee shot, a Pete Sampras tennis serve, Or a speeding bullet. (Also to 12 Calories, which heats a gram of water by 12oC) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  7. 3 x1020 eV = macroscopic 50 Joules Clemens does this with 1027 nucleons; Nature does this with one nucleon, 1027 times more efficient ! Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  8. Fly’s Eye 3x1020 eV event (1992) 100 billion e+e- pairs at xmax ~ 800 g/cm2 This longitudinal profile is consistent with a primary proton, but not with a primary photon; Disfavors “local” top-down sources such as massive Particle DK, topo-defects, Z-bursts, etc. Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  9. EE Neutrinos are young Liberated at T=Mev, t= 1 sec Depends on energy (Lorentz boost) Consider a 1020 eV neutrino. Lorentz factor = 1021 for mn = 0.1 eV. Age of Uni is 1018 sec, But age of n is 1018/1021 sec = 1 millisecond ! And it doesn’t even see the stream of radiation rushing past it – untouched ! Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  10. Hillas Plot -- coherence length= B x L Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  11. Size matters EUSO ~ 300 x AGASA ~ 10 x Auger EUSO (Instantaneous) ~3000 x AGASA ~ 100 x Auger Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  12. Article Images Extreme Universe Space Observatory • EUSO onboard the ISS (Or Not!) • 2012 Hundredth anniversary of Hess • – EUSO finishes three-year data-taking Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  13. “clear moonless nights” Or New York State power blackout Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  14. Orbiting Wide-angle Lens (OWL) 3000 events/year above 1020eV and UHE Neutrinos! Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  15. nHAS event rate is small e.g. FCR at 1020 eV implies 10-2 events/yr; Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  16. AGASA Spectrum: EeV to ZeV AGASA, July 2002 Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  17. -resonance multi-pions Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin and the Cosmic-Ray Wall Photo-pion production off CMB p+cmb  p/n+ Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  18. HiRes vs. AGASA UHE spectrum FlysEye event goes here discovery opportunity GZK recovery ? Z-burst uncovery ? EUSO reach x 103 better Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  19. AGASA hot-spots -- Data red: E > 4 1019 eV green: E > 1020 eV Cluster Component ~ E -1.8±0.5 Neutrinos will point better Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  20. AGASA hot-spots -- numbers Within 2.5 degree circles, AGASA identifies six doublet, one triplet, Out of 57 events; Opening the angle to just 2.6 degrees, AGASA identifies seven doublets, two triplets; Haverah Park contributes two more paired events in AGASA directions. NOT corroborated by HiRes. • Source number ~ N12/2N2 ~ 270 to 50%, • weighting with GZK suppression, • ~ 10-5 /Mpc3for source density Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  21. Berezinsky et al Xgal proton flux Mass-composition data (HiRes 2002) Theory threshold for pg2.7Kpe+e- and data (knee) are at 1017.6 eV. • Xgal proton dominance • begins at 1018 eV, not 1019 eV ! • Fn ~ 50 x Waxman-Bahcall • AMANDA/RICE/EAS-sensitive !! (AGHW, 2004) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  22. AMANDA to 100 TeV Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  23. AMANDA/IceCube nm event Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  24. Xgal proton fit huge n flux low Xgal dominance flux, with no evolution WB fluxes AGHW, hep-ph/04010003 xp is pion energy/CR energy at source (1 for WB “limit”); xz is cosmic evolution factor, 0.6 (no) to 3.0 (SFR) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  25. Neutrinos versusCosmic-Rays and Photons ns come from central engines - near Rs of massive BHs - even from dense “hidden” sources cf. ns vs. gs from the sun ns not affected by cosmic radiation (except for annihilation resonance) ns not bent by magnetic fields - enables neutrino astronomy Also, besides Energy and Direction, n’s carry flavor Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  26. n diagnostic of astro-engines:ppp vs. pg p The process ne+e-- W-- is resonant at 6.4 PeV; IceCube will have flavor ID, and DE/E of 25%, and so can measure On-Res/Off-Res ratio. pp make nearly equal p+p-  nm:nm:ne:ne = 2:2:1:1  flavor democracy, ne = 1/6 total pg via D+ make p+  nm:nm:ne = 1:1:1 (no ne)  ne = 1/15 total IceCube can resolve this (AGHW, ArXiv this week) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  27. The cosmicnflavor-mixing theorem If theta32 is maximal (it is), And if Re(Ue3) is minimal (it is), Then nm and nt equilibrate; Further, if initial ne flux is 1/3 (as from pion-muon decay chain), Then all three flavors equilibrate. ne:nm:nt = 1 : 1 : 1 at Earth Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  28. Democracy Broken: • 1. n decay (15 minutes of fame) • 2. Vacuum resonance • (MaVaNs, LIV vector) • 3. Pseudo-Dirac n oscillations • 4. Source dynamics (w/ Farzan) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  29. Neutrino Decay -- Models, Signatures, and Reach Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  30. “Essentially Guaranteed” Xgal n Flux HiRes 2004 fit: Green: galactic component Red: Xgal component Evolution parameter 2.8 +/- 0.3 Cosmogenic n’s: Fn(Ep/5/4) = Fp(E>5 1019) x 20 Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  31. “Essentially Guaranteed”Xgal Cosmogenic n Flux Cosmogenic n’s: Fn(Ep/5/4) = Fp(E>5 1019) x 20 graphs from Semikoz and Sigl Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  32. “Essentially Guaranteed” High-Energy Galactic Neutrino Flux ctn = 10 kpc (En / EeV) and En/ En ~ Q / mn ~ 0.8 x 10-3  En ~ PeV, for En ~ EeV Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  33. “More Guaranteed” Comparing to “guaranteed” cosmogenic flux, Galactic beam (here) is higher ! Icecube atmos background in 1o circle is just 1.5events/yr,  3.5 events offers 95% CL detection in 1 yr; Calculated signal is 4 nm /yr and 16 ne+nt showers/yr. Conclude that in a few years, IceCube attains 5s discovery sensitivity for Fe  n  ne  nm, Providing “smoking ice” for GP neutron hypothesis. Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  34. Relic Neutrino density – meV astrophysics Neutrino density from CMB density Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  35. Resonant Neutrino Annihilation Mean-Free-Path From Fargion, Mele, Salis l=(nn sn)-1 = 40 DH/h70 (neglecting higher densities at earlier times) Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  36. Escher’s Angels and Devils” Looking back, nn~(1+z)3, And so the absorption is greatly Enhanced for n’s from high-z sources Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  37. Neutrino mass-spectroscopy: absorption and emission The only possibility to directly infer the relic n density Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  38. zmax=2, 5, 20 (top to bottom), n-a=2 (bottom-up acceleration) Eberle, Ringwald, Song, TJW, 2004 n-mass spectroscopy Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  39. Dips & sobering realism • hidden MX=4 1014 and 1016 GeV, • to explain >GZK w/ Z-bursts; • mass = 0.2 (0.4) eV - dashed (solid); Error bars – per energy decade, by 2013, for flux saturating present limits Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  40. Z-bursts TJW, 1982; Revival – 1997 ~ 50 Mpc Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  41. Fitted Z-burst (Emission) Flux Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  42. Nu-mass limit for Z-burst fitted to EECRs Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  43. HiRes vs. AGASA UHE spectrum FlysEye event goes here discovery opportunity GZK recovery ? Z-burst uncovery ? EUSO reach x 103 Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  44. Model Neutrino Fluxes and Future Limits Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  45. View (Japanese) of Earth-Moon System n radio Cherenkov Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University

  46. Summary • Neutrino Astrophysics: • – now in the hands of theorists (speculation) and engineers (construction) • -- soon in the hands of experimenters (real data) • Promise to reveal • -- neutrino physics (cross-section, lifetime, pseudoDirac) • -- extreme astrophysics (source dynamics, source environment) • -- cosmology (CnB, Omega‘s) • Next ten years will be critical, and, the deities willing, fruitful ! Tom Weiler, Vanderbilt University