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## Second Grade Everyday Math Key Vocabulary

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**absolute value**absolute valueof 3 is 3 absolute valueof -6 is 6 The absolute value of a positive number is the number itself.**acre**A unit of area equal to 43,560 square feet.**addend**addends sum 14 + 15 + 6 = 35 One of two or more numbers that are added.**+**addition 2 + 3 = 5 A mathematical operation based on putting together two or more quantities.**additive inverses**3 +(-3)=0 additive inverse of 3 is -3 additive inverse of -3 is 3 Two numbers whose sum is 0. The additive inverse of a number is also called its opposite.**addition fact**digit sum 9 + 7 = 16 Two 1-digit numbers and their sum. add**addition fact**digit sum 9 + 7 = 16 Two 1-digit numbers and their sum. add**algorithm**A set of step-by-step instructions for doing something, such as carrying out a computation or solving a problem.**A.M.**It means “before the middle of the day” from midnight to noon. A.M. =ante meridiem**analog clock**hour minute A clock that shows the time by the position of the hour and minute hand.**angle**A figure that is formed by two rays or two line segments with a common endpoint.**area**The measure of a bounded surface.**arm span**The distance from fingertip to fingertip of a person’s outstretched arms.**array**column } { row A rectangular arrangement of objects in rows and columns.**arrow path**64 56 56 64 65 56 A route to follow on a number grid.**arrow rule**arrow rule Rule 5 8 14 11 + 3 The operation that determines the number that goes in the next frame in a Frames-and-Arrows diagram. arrow**arrows**arrow rule Rule 5 10 20 15 + 5 The links representing the rule that determines which numbers go in the frames of a Frames-and-Arrows diagram. arrow**associative property**(4+3)+7=4+(3+7) A property of addition and multiplication (but not of subtraction or division) that says that changing the grouping of the elements being added or multiplied will not change the sum or product.**attribute**color size shape number of sides A feature of an object or a common feature of a set of objects.**ballpark estimate**27+39=66 30+40=70 A rough estimate used as a check on the reasonableness of an answer or when an exact figure is not necessary.**bank draft**A written order for the exchange of money. $1000 bills are no longer in use, so bank drafts are used instead.**bar graph**A graph that shows the relationships among variables by the use of bars to represent quantities.**base**base Any side of a polygon, usually used, along with the altitude perpendicular to it, for computing area. 2. The flat face of faces that define the shape when classifying polyhedrons.**base 10 shorthand**A system to represent base 10 blocks. . . . . . . .**big cube**The term for the 10 cm by 10 cm base 10 block. A big cube is worth 1,000 cm cubes.**capacity**A measure of how much a container can hold, usually in units such as quarts, gallons, cups, or liters.**Celsius**The temperature scale on which 0 is the temperature that pure water freezes and 100 it boils. Celsius scale is used in the metric system. 0 0**centimeter (cm)**In the metric system a unit of length equivalent to 10 millimeters,(1/10) of a decimeter, and (1/100) of a meter.**centimeter cube**The term for the smallest of the base-10 blocks, measuring 1 cm on each edge.**change diagram**Change -5 End 9 Start 14 14 – 5 = 9 A diagram used to represent situations in which quantities are either increased or decreased.**circle**The set of all points in a plane that are equally distant from a given point in the plane called the center of the circle.**Class Data Pad**A large pad of paper where data collected by the class can be stored for use (and review) throughout the year.**column**column } { row A vertical arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.**commutative property**8+7=157+8=15 A property of addition and multiplication (but not of subtraction or division) that says that changing the order of the elements being added or multiplied will not change the sum or product.**comparison diagram**Quantity 12 Quantity Quantity 9 ? A diagram used to represent situations in which two quantities are compared. 12 = 9 + ?**cone**apex curved surface A 3-dimensional shape having a circular base, a curved surface, and one vertex, called the apex. base**consecutive**A, B, C, D, E 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Following one another in an uninterrupted order.**corner**corner The point at which the rays or line segments of an angle, side of a polygon, or other edge of a polyhedron meet.**counting numbers**{1, 2, 3,4, ...} The numbers used to count things. Sometimes 0 is included with the counting numbers.**cubes**A polyhedron with six square faces. One regular polyhedron.**cubit**An ancient unit of length, measured from the point of the elbow to the end of the middle finger.**cup**In the U.S. customary system, a unit of capacity equal to 8 fluid ounces; ½ pint.**curved surface or face**A surface which does not lie in a plane.**customary system**capacity ounces cups pints quarts gallons length inches feet yards miles weight ounces pounds tons The measuring system used most often in the U.S. tea spoons table spoons**cylinder**A 3-dimensional shape having a curved surface and parallel circular or elliptical bases that are the same size.**data**Information gathered by observing, counting, or measuring.**deci-**.10 Prefix meaning one-tenth.**decimal point**$24.45 1 2 = .50 The mark that separates the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation. It separates the dollars from the cents.**decimeter (dm)**Metric unit measuring length equivalent to 1/10 of a meter or 10 centimeters.