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Engine Intro & Basic Induction. Presented by: Will Miller. Engine Types. Turbine Engine Found in transport Category aircraft Relatively costly but extremely powerful Reciprocating Engine Found in general aviation Economical, but still very reliable . Cessna Engine. Horizontally Opposed

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engine intro basic induction

Engine Intro & Basic Induction

Presented by:

Will Miller

engine types
Engine Types
  • Turbine Engine
    • Found in transport Category aircraft
    • Relatively costly but extremely powerful
  • Reciprocating Engine
    • Found in general aviation
    • Economical, but still very reliable
cessna engine
Cessna Engine
  • Horizontally Opposed
  • Direct Drive
  • Air Cooled
  • 4 cylinder
engine operation
Engine Operation
  • What are the four strokes of an engine?
intake
Intake
  • When the piston moves away form the cylinder head
  • Intake valve opens
  • Fuel/Air mixture is drawn into the combustion chamber
compression
Compression
  • Piston moves back toward the cylinder head
  • Intake valve closes
  • Fuel/Air Mixture is compressed
power
Power
  • Compression nearly complete
  • Spark plugs fire
  • Compressed mixture is ignited
  • Rapidly expanding gases drive the piston, providing the power that rotates the crankshaft
exhaust
Exhaust
  • Expels the burned gases through the exhaust valve, which opens at the end of the power stroke
induction system
Induction System
  • Brings outside air into the engine, mixes it with fuel in the proper proportion and deliver it to the cylinders where combustion occurs.
  • Throttle
  • Mixture
  • Intake Port
throttle
Throttle
  • Controls Engine Speed
  • Regulates the amount of fuel/air mixture that flows into the cylinders
mixture
Mixture
  • Controls the fuel/air ratio
intake port
Intake Port
  • Where outside air enters the induction system
  • Normally contains an air filter to keep out dust and FOD
carburetor
Carburetor
  • Mixes the incoming air with fuel and delivers it to the combustion chamber
carburetor1
Carburetor
  • Air passes through a venturi, increases velocity and decreases pressure
  • Fuel enters from a float chamber where it is maintained at a nearly constant level by a float device
  • Discharge nozzle is located in an area of low pressure created by the venturi
  • Fuel is forced through the discharge nozzel by the higher atmospheric pressure in the float chamber
overly rich mixture
Overly Rich Mixture
  • What does it mean to have a “Rich” mixture?
    • As altitude increases, the mixture will get progressively richer due to the decrease in air density.
    • Can result in engine roughness: excessive carbon buildup on the spark plug will cause them to foul.
    • High elevation airports, climb or cruise at high elevation
overly lean mixture
Overly Lean Mixture
  • What does it mean to have a “Lean” mixture?
    • May result in high engine temperatures causing excessive wear or even failure
    • Enrichen Mixture on descents from high altitudes
    • Watch engine temperature
carburetor ice
Carburetor Ice
  • Occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and decreasing pressure in the venturi which causes a sharp temperature drop in the carburetor
  • If water vapor in the air condenses when the carburetor temperature is at or below freezing, ice may form on internal surfaces of the carburetor, including the throttle valve
  • Likely below 21C (70F), humidity above 80%
carburetor ice indications
Carburetor Ice Indications
  • Why can Carburetor Ice be dangerous?
  • What are some indications of Carb Ice?
    • Drop in engine RPM
    • Engine Roughness
    • Fuel starvation
  • What can we do to get rid of carburetor ice or even prevent it from happening in the first place?
    • Carburetor Heat
carburetor heat
Carburetor Heat
  • Carburetor ice is especially dangerous when operating at low power settings, may go unnoticed until power is added
  • How does carburetor heat work?
    • Carburetor heat routes air across a heat source before it enters the carburetor
  • How will carb heat affect engine performance?
    • Causes a slight decrease in engine power (heated air is less dense)
    • If ice is present, there will be a decrease followed by a gradual increase in rpm
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