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BASIC DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY
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BASIC DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

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  1. BASIC DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY Original Power Point created By Joey Wells Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002 TRI-CO. YOUNG FARMERS DECEMBER 4, 2001

  2. INTRODUCTION • THE DIESEL ENGINE IS USED AS A SOURCE OF POWER FOR THOUSANDS OF APPLICATIONS.

  3. WHO INVENTED THE DIESEL ENGINE? • 1895 – RUDOLPH DIESEL SUCCESSFULLY INVENTED AN ENGINE THAT BURNED COAL DUST INJECTED BY PRESSURIZED AIR. THE DIESEL ENGINE WAS BORN.

  4. WHO DEVELOPED THE FIRST MASS PRODUCED INJECTION PUMP? • ROBERT BOSCH IN 1927

  5. USES OF DIESEL ENGINES TODAY, DIESEL ENGINES ARE USED TO PROVIDE POWER IN A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS IN MANY INDUSTRIES

  6. THERE ARE SIX MAJOR USES OF DIESEL ENGINES

  7. AGRICULTURE/FARM

  8. TRANSPORTATION

  9. CONSTRUCTION

  10. FORESTRY

  11. MARINE

  12. ELECTRICAL GENERATION PLANTS

  13. SEVEN ADVANTAGES OF DIESEL ENGINES • MORE EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL TO USE • FUEL VAPOR IS NOT EXPLOSIVE • EXHAUST GASES ARE LESS POISONOUS – LESS CARBON MONOXIDE • GREATER LUGGING POWER AND TORQUE

  14. ADVANTAGES CONTINUED • ENGINES ARE DURABLE AND IF PROPERLY CARED FOR WILL MAINTAIN THEIR ECONOMY • FUEL IS LESS VOLATILE – NO VAPOR LOCK PROBLEMS • CAN USE A VARIETY OF FUELS AND MIXTURES

  15. FIVE DISADVANTAGES OF DIESEL ENGINES • ENGINES MUST BE STONGER AND HEAVIER BECAUSE OF HIGHER COMPRESSION RATES • INITIALLY MORE EXPENSIVE • FUEL COULD GEL IN COLDER CLIMATES • GENERALLY NOISER OPERATION • VERY PUNGENT EXHAUST ODOR

  16. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: AN ENGINE THAT PRODUCES POWER BY BURNING FUEL INSIDE A COMBUSTION CHAMBER WITHIN THE ENGINE

  17. TWO TYPES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

  18. SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

  19. COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

  20. TRUE OR FALSE: SPARK PLUGS SHOULD BE CHANGED MORE OFTEN IN DIESEL ENGINES THAN IN GASOLINE ENGINES? FALSE

  21. BASICALLY, HOW DOES A SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE WORK? • LIQUID FUEL BROKEN DOWN INTO A FINE SPRAY AND MIXED WITH AIR IN THE CARBURETOR. • FUEL-AIR MIXTURE PIPED TO THE CYLINDER WHERE IT IS IGNITED BY AN ELECTRIC SPARK FROM THE SPARK PLUG.

  22. HOW DOES A COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE WORK? • NO SPARK IS NEEDED • LIQUID FUEL UNDER VERY HIGH PRESSURE IS INJECTED DIRECTLY INTO THE CYLINDER WHICH IS FILLED WITH HIGHLY COMPRESSED AIR. • IGNITION BEGINS WHEN THE FUEL HITS THE AIR THAT IS AT A TEMPERATURE OF 777 DEGREES F.

  23. WHAT DOES A COMPRESSION RATIO OF 16:1 MEAN? THE AIR IN A CYLINDER IS COMPRESSED INTO 1/16 THE SPACE AT THE TOP OF THE STROKE AS COMPARED TO THE BOTTOM OF THE STROKE

  24. TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES USE GREATER COMPRESSION RATIOS THAN GASOLINE ENGINES? TRUE DIESEL ENGINES – 16:1 TO 22:1 GASOLINE ENGINES – 8:1

  25. TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES REQUIRE MORE AIR THAN GASOLINE ENGINES TRUE

  26. TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES HAVE NO IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS TRUE NO SPARK PLUGS, COIL, MAGNETO, DISTRIBUTOR, OR WIRING

  27. TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES, LIKE GASOLINE ENGINES, DRAW IN FUEL AND AIR ON THE INTAKE STROKE? FALSE ONLY AIR IN A DIESEL ENGINE

  28. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A TURBOCHARGER ON A DIESEL ENGINE? TO INCREASE THE AIR INTAKE INTO THE CYLINDERS

  29. TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES REQUIRE A HIGH PRESSURE PUMP TO INJECT THE FUEL INTO THE COMPRESSED AIR IN THE CYLINDER? TRUE

  30. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ENGINE PART THAT SPRAYS FUEL INTO THE CYLINDER OF A DIESEL ENGINE? INJECTOR NOZZEL

  31. WHAT TYPE MATERIAL ARE FUEL LINES MADE OF IN A DIESEL ENGINE? WHY? STEEL PRESSURES FROM 5,000 TO 20,000 PSI ARE INVOLVED

  32. TRUE OR FALSE: GASOLINE IS LESS VOLATILE THAN DIESEL FUELS FALSE GASOLINE EVAPORATES READILY AND IS VERY EXPLOSIVE

  33. TRUE OR FALSE: GASOLINE ENGINES ARE HEAVIER THAN DIESEL ENGINES OF THE SAME HORSEPOWER? FALSE HIGH DIESEL CYLINDER PRESSURES REQUIRE HEAVIER MATERIALS

  34. HOW IS ENGINE SPEED CONTROLLED IN A DIESEL ENGINE? • THE THROTTLE CONTROL REGULATES ONLY THE AMOUNT OF FUEL INJECTED INTO THE CYLINDER • THE THROTTLE CONTROL IN A GASOLINE ENGINE REGULATES THE AMOUNT OF AIR/FUEL MIXTURE ALLOWED INTO THE CYLINDER

  35. HOW ARE DIESEL ENGINES STOPPED? • BY SHUTTING OFF THE FUEL TO THE CYLINDERS BY A MANUAL CONTROL OR SOLENOID SWITCH • GASOLINE ENGINES ARE STOPPED BY CUTTING OFF THE SPARK FROM THE SPARK PLUGS TO THE CYLINDERS

  36. HOW AN ENGINE WORKS

  37. WHAT ARE THE FIVE BASIC PARTS OF ANY ENGINE?

  38. NAME THE TWO BASIC TYPES OF ENGINES • FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE • TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE

  39. WHAT SEQUENCE OF EVENTS MAKE UP A CYCLE? • INTAKE • COMPRESSION • POWER • EXHAUST • WHAT IS A STROKE? • ONE MOVEMENT OF THE PISTON

  40. FOUR STROKES OF AN ENGINE

  41. HOW MANY TIMES DOES THE CRANKSHAFT REVOLVE DURING A CYCLE IN A FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE? TWO

  42. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN EACH STROKE WHEN COMPARING A DIESEL ENGINE WITH A GASOLINE ENGINE? • INTAKE • AIR VS. AIR/FUEL MIXTURE

  43. DIFFERENCES CONTINUED • COMPRESSION STROKE • COMPRESSION RATIO • POWER STROKE • SPARK PLUG VS. HEAT OF COMPRESSION • EXHAUST STROKE • SAME FOR BOTH

  44. TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES

  45. HOW MANY STROKES OF THE PISTON ARE REQUIRED FOR A CYCLE TO BE COMPLETED IN A TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE? TWO

  46. WHAT HAPPENS DURING STROKE 1 IN A TWO STROKE CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINE? • THE UPSTROKE OF THE PISTON COMPRESSES THE AIR/FUEL MIXTURE. (COMPRESSION STROKE) • AT THE SAME TIME, A NEW AIR-FUEL MIXTURE IS DRAWN INTO THE CRANKCASE. (INTAKE STROKE)

  47. WHAT HAPPENS DURING STROKE 2 OF A TWO STROKE CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINE? • THE DOWNWARD STROKE (POWER STROKE) OF THE PISTON CAUSES THE BURNED GASES TO ESCAPE THROUGH THE EXHAUST PORT. (EXHAUST STROKE) • NEW FUEL-AIR IS FORCED INTO THE CYLINDER

  48. TWO-STROKE CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

  49. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A DIESEL AND GASOLINE TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINE? • DIESEL ENGINES INJECT FUEL INTO THE CYLINDER THROUGH A FUEL INJECTOR • A BLOWER IS OFTEN USED TO FORCE AIR INTO THE CYLINDER • DIESEL ENGINES HAVE EXHAUST VALVES, GAS ENGINES HAVE A PORT

  50. TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE