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BASIC DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY Original Power Point created By Joey Wells Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002 TRI-CO. YOUNG FARMERS DECEMBER 4, 2001 INTRODUCTION THE DIESEL ENGINE IS USED AS A SOURCE OF POWER FOR THOUSANDS OF APPLICATIONS.

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basic diesel engine technology

BASIC DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

Original Power Point created By Joey Wells

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education

Curriculum Office

June 2002

TRI-CO. YOUNG FARMERS

DECEMBER 4, 2001

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • THE DIESEL ENGINE IS USED AS A SOURCE OF POWER FOR THOUSANDS OF APPLICATIONS.
who invented the diesel engine
WHO INVENTED THE DIESEL ENGINE?
  • 1895 – RUDOLPH DIESEL SUCCESSFULLY INVENTED AN ENGINE THAT BURNED COAL DUST INJECTED BY PRESSURIZED AIR. THE DIESEL ENGINE WAS BORN.
uses of diesel engines

USES OF DIESEL ENGINES

TODAY, DIESEL ENGINES ARE USED TO PROVIDE POWER IN A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS IN MANY INDUSTRIES

seven advantages of diesel engines
SEVEN ADVANTAGES OF DIESEL ENGINES
  • MORE EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL TO USE
  • FUEL VAPOR IS NOT EXPLOSIVE
  • EXHAUST GASES ARE LESS POISONOUS – LESS CARBON MONOXIDE
  • GREATER LUGGING POWER AND TORQUE
advantages continued
ADVANTAGES CONTINUED
  • ENGINES ARE DURABLE AND IF PROPERLY CARED FOR WILL MAINTAIN THEIR ECONOMY
  • FUEL IS LESS VOLATILE – NO VAPOR LOCK PROBLEMS
  • CAN USE A VARIETY OF FUELS AND MIXTURES
five disadvantages of diesel engines
FIVE DISADVANTAGES OF DIESEL ENGINES
  • ENGINES MUST BE STONGER AND HEAVIER BECAUSE OF HIGHER COMPRESSION RATES
  • INITIALLY MORE EXPENSIVE
  • FUEL COULD GEL IN COLDER CLIMATES
  • GENERALLY NOISER OPERATION
  • VERY PUNGENT EXHAUST ODOR
internal combustion engine

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE:

AN ENGINE THAT PRODUCES POWER BY BURNING FUEL INSIDE A COMBUSTION CHAMBER WITHIN THE ENGINE

true or false spark plugs should be changed more often in diesel engines than in gasoline engines

TRUE OR FALSE: SPARK PLUGS SHOULD BE CHANGED MORE OFTEN IN DIESEL ENGINES THAN IN GASOLINE ENGINES?

FALSE

basically how does a spark ignition engine work
BASICALLY, HOW DOES A SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE WORK?
  • LIQUID FUEL BROKEN DOWN INTO A FINE SPRAY AND MIXED WITH AIR IN THE CARBURETOR.
  • FUEL-AIR MIXTURE PIPED TO THE CYLINDER WHERE IT IS IGNITED BY AN ELECTRIC SPARK FROM THE SPARK PLUG.
how does a compression ignition engine work
HOW DOES A COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE WORK?
  • NO SPARK IS NEEDED
  • LIQUID FUEL UNDER VERY HIGH PRESSURE IS INJECTED DIRECTLY INTO THE CYLINDER WHICH IS FILLED WITH HIGHLY COMPRESSED AIR.
  • IGNITION BEGINS WHEN THE FUEL HITS THE AIR THAT IS AT A TEMPERATURE OF 777 DEGREES F.
what does a compression ratio of 16 1 mean

WHAT DOES A COMPRESSION RATIO OF 16:1 MEAN?

THE AIR IN A CYLINDER IS COMPRESSED INTO 1/16 THE SPACE AT THE TOP OF THE STROKE AS COMPARED TO THE BOTTOM OF THE STROKE

true or false diesel engines use greater compression ratios than gasoline engines

TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES USE GREATER COMPRESSION RATIOS THAN GASOLINE ENGINES?

TRUE

DIESEL ENGINES – 16:1 TO 22:1

GASOLINE ENGINES – 8:1

true or false diesel engines have no ignition system components

TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES HAVE NO IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

TRUE

NO SPARK PLUGS, COIL, MAGNETO, DISTRIBUTOR, OR WIRING

true or false diesel engines like gasoline engines draw in fuel and air on the intake stroke

TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES, LIKE GASOLINE ENGINES, DRAW IN FUEL AND AIR ON THE INTAKE STROKE?

FALSE

ONLY AIR IN A DIESEL ENGINE

what is the purpose of a turbocharger on a diesel engine

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A TURBOCHARGER ON A DIESEL ENGINE?

TO INCREASE THE AIR INTAKE INTO THE CYLINDERS

slide29

TRUE OR FALSE: DIESEL ENGINES REQUIRE A HIGH PRESSURE PUMP TO INJECT THE FUEL INTO THE COMPRESSED AIR IN THE CYLINDER?

TRUE

what is the name of the engine part that sprays fuel into the cylinder of a diesel engine

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ENGINE PART THAT SPRAYS FUEL INTO THE CYLINDER OF A DIESEL ENGINE?

INJECTOR NOZZEL

what type material are fuel lines made of in a diesel engine why

WHAT TYPE MATERIAL ARE FUEL LINES MADE OF IN A DIESEL ENGINE? WHY?

STEEL

PRESSURES FROM 5,000 TO 20,000 PSI ARE INVOLVED

true or false gasoline is less volatile than diesel fuels

TRUE OR FALSE: GASOLINE IS LESS VOLATILE THAN DIESEL FUELS

FALSE

GASOLINE EVAPORATES READILY AND IS VERY EXPLOSIVE

true or false gasoline engines are heavier than diesel engines of the same horsepower

TRUE OR FALSE: GASOLINE ENGINES ARE HEAVIER THAN DIESEL ENGINES OF THE SAME HORSEPOWER?

FALSE

HIGH DIESEL CYLINDER PRESSURES REQUIRE HEAVIER MATERIALS

how is engine speed controlled in a diesel engine
HOW IS ENGINE SPEED CONTROLLED IN A DIESEL ENGINE?
  • THE THROTTLE CONTROL REGULATES ONLY THE AMOUNT OF FUEL INJECTED INTO THE CYLINDER
  • THE THROTTLE CONTROL IN A GASOLINE ENGINE REGULATES THE AMOUNT OF AIR/FUEL MIXTURE ALLOWED INTO THE CYLINDER
how are diesel engines stopped
HOW ARE DIESEL ENGINES STOPPED?
  • BY SHUTTING OFF THE FUEL TO THE CYLINDERS BY A MANUAL CONTROL OR SOLENOID SWITCH
  • GASOLINE ENGINES ARE STOPPED BY CUTTING OFF THE SPARK FROM THE SPARK PLUGS TO THE CYLINDERS
name the two basic types of engines
NAME THE TWO BASIC TYPES OF ENGINES
  • FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE
  • TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE
what sequence of events make up a cycle
WHAT SEQUENCE OF EVENTS MAKE UP A CYCLE?
  • INTAKE
  • COMPRESSION
  • POWER
  • EXHAUST
  • WHAT IS A STROKE?
  • ONE MOVEMENT OF THE PISTON
what are the major differences in each stroke when comparing a diesel engine with a gasoline engine
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN EACH STROKE WHEN COMPARING A DIESEL ENGINE WITH A GASOLINE ENGINE?
  • INTAKE
    • AIR VS. AIR/FUEL MIXTURE
differences continued
DIFFERENCES CONTINUED
  • COMPRESSION STROKE
    • COMPRESSION RATIO
  • POWER STROKE
    • SPARK PLUG VS. HEAT OF COMPRESSION
  • EXHAUST STROKE
    • SAME FOR BOTH
slide45

HOW MANY STROKES OF THE PISTON ARE REQUIRED FOR A CYCLE TO BE COMPLETED IN A TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE?

TWO

what happens during stroke 1 in a two stroke cycle gasoline engine
WHAT HAPPENS DURING STROKE 1 IN A TWO STROKE CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINE?
  • THE UPSTROKE OF THE PISTON COMPRESSES THE AIR/FUEL MIXTURE. (COMPRESSION STROKE)
  • AT THE SAME TIME, A NEW AIR-FUEL MIXTURE IS DRAWN INTO THE CRANKCASE. (INTAKE STROKE)
what happens during stroke 2 of a two stroke cycle gasoline engine
WHAT HAPPENS DURING STROKE 2 OF A TWO STROKE CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINE?
  • THE DOWNWARD STROKE (POWER STROKE) OF THE PISTON CAUSES THE BURNED GASES TO ESCAPE THROUGH THE EXHAUST PORT. (EXHAUST STROKE)
  • NEW FUEL-AIR IS FORCED INTO THE CYLINDER
what are the differences between a diesel and gasoline two stroke cycle engine
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A DIESEL AND GASOLINE TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINE?
  • DIESEL ENGINES INJECT FUEL INTO THE CYLINDER THROUGH A FUEL INJECTOR
  • A BLOWER IS OFTEN USED TO FORCE AIR INTO THE CYLINDER
  • DIESEL ENGINES HAVE EXHAUST VALVES, GAS ENGINES HAVE A PORT
what is a turbocharger on a diesel engine

WHAT IS A TURBOCHARGER ON A DIESEL ENGINE?

A CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER THAT IS DRIVEN BY EXHAUST GASES WHICH FORCES MORE AIR INTO THE CYLINDER. INCREASES POWER

how important is keeping air filters clean

HOW IMPORTANT IS KEEPING AIR FILTERS CLEAN?

VERY IMPORTANT

A DIESEL ENGINE USES 12-15,000 GALLONS OF AIR TO EACH GALLON OF FUEL

name three types of air cleaners
NAME THREE TYPES OF AIR CLEANERS
  • OIL-BATH TYPE CLEANER
  • PRE-CLEANER
  • DRY-TYPE AIR CLEANER
what are the five basic parts of a diesel fuel system
WHAT ARE THE FIVE BASIC PARTS OF A DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM?
  • INJECTION NOZZLES
  • INJECTION PUMP
  • FILTERS
  • TRANSFER PUMP
  • FUEL TANK
100 gallons of crude oil will yield what products
100 GALLONS OF CRUDE OIL WILL YIELD WHAT PRODUCTS?
  • GASOLINE = 44 GALLONS
  • DIESEL FUEL = 36 GALLONS
  • MISC. = 9 GALLONS
  • KEROSENE = 6 GALLONS
  • LUBRICANTS = 3 GALLONS
  • LOSS = 3 GALLONS
what are the three grades of diesel fuel
WHAT ARE THE THREE GRADES OF DIESEL FUEL?
  • NUMBER 1 DIESEL FUEL (NO. 1-D)
    • RECOMMENDED FOR COLD WEATHER. REMAINS FLUID FOR EASIER STARTING
    • BUSES, CARS, TRUCKS, FARM TRACTORS
  • NUMBER 2 DIESEL FUEL (NO. 2-D)
    • HEAVY WORK LOADS. BUSES, TRUCKS, FARM EQUIPMENT
  • NUMBER 4 DIESEL FUEL (NO. 4-D)
    • OCEAN GOING VESSELS WITH LOW-MEDIUM SPEED ENGINES
what are some effects of engine overheating
WHAT ARE SOME EFFECTS OF ENGINE OVERHEATING?
  • CYLINDER HEAD AND BLOCK CAN CRACK OR WARP
  • RINGS AND VALVES MAY SEIZE OR STICK DUE TO GUMS, LAQUERS, AND VARNISHES FORMING FROM OVERHEATED OIL AND CARBON FORMATION
  • BEARINGS MAY BE DAMAGED CAUSING EXCESSIVE WEAR
what are some effects of overcooling
WHAT ARE SOME EFFECTS OF OVERCOOLING?
  • INCREASED ENGINE WEAR
  • IMPROPER LUBRICATION
  • INCREASED FUEL CONSUMPTION
  • INCREASED SLUDGE FORMATION
  • INCREASED ENGINE CORROSION
    • MOISTURE CONDENSES IF BELOW 140 DEGREES IN THE ENGINE CRANKCASE
what are some advantages of air cooled engines
WHAT ARE SOME ADVANTAGES OF AIR-COOLED ENGINES
  • LESS WEIGHT
  • LESS MAINTENANCE
  • LESS DOWN-TIME
  • NO CAVITATION EROSION
  • NO COOLANT CONCERNS
  • MORE EFFICIENT USE OF POWER
  • LESS VULNERABLE TO DAMAGE
  • LESS BULK
  • QUICKER WARM-UP
what are some disadvantages to air cooled engines
WHAT ARE SOME DISADVANTAGES TO AIR-COOLED ENGINES?
  • LENGTH OF THE ENGINE
  • LESS TEMPERATURE CONTROL
  • HIGHER OPERATING TEMPERATURES
  • GREATER NOISE
  • MORE FREQUENT CLEANING
what are the functions for the lubrication system
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS FOR THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM?
  • REDUCES SHOCK, WEAR, AND FRICTION
  • SEALS COMPRESSION
  • PROVIDES SOME CLEANING
  • HELPS COOL THE ENGINE
  • QUIETS THE ENGINE OPERATION
what two characteristics are most important in choosing proper oil

WHAT TWO CHARACTERISTICS ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN CHOOSING PROPER OIL?

VISCOSITY

SERVICE CLASSIFICATION

what is viscosity
WHAT IS VISCOSITY?
  • A MEASURE OF A LIQUID’S RESISTANCE TO FLOW
  • HIGHER TEMPERATURE – DECREASE IN VISCOSITY
  • SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (SAE) DEVELOPED NUMBERING SYSTEM
api engine oil service categories

API ENGINE OIL SERVICE CATEGORIES

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

TABLE 1: (HANDOUT)

what are the three most common oil additives
WHAT ARE THE THREE MOST COMMON OIL ADDITIVES?
  • OXIDATION INHIBITORS
  • CORROSION AND RUST INHIBITORS
  • DETERGENT DISPERSANTS
what is pascal s law of hydraulics
WHAT IS PASCAL’S LAW OF HYDRAULICS?
  • PRESSURE ON A LIQUID IN A CONTAINER IS TRANSFERRED EQUALLY TO ALL SURFACES