BALLET Ba By: Mrs. Segraves and Ms. Wilson
Country of Origin • The earliest precursors to ballets were lavish entertainments given in the courts of Renaissance Italy. These elaborate spectacles, which united painting, poetry, music, and dancing, took place in large halls that were used also for banquets and balls. A dance performance given in 1489 actually was performed between the courses of a banquet, and the action was closely related to the menu
When and where ballet began • Early Professional Ballet • In 1661 Louis XIV established the Academie Royale de Danse, a professional organization for dancing masters.. By then the court ballet was already giving way to professional dancing. At first all the dancers were men, and men in masks danced women's roles. The first female dancers to perform professionally in a theater production appeared (1681) in a ballet called Le Triomphe de l'Amour
When and where con’t • Romantic Ballet • The ballet La Sylphide, first performed in Paris in 1832, introduced the period of the romantic ballet. • Women dominated the romantic ballet. • Marie Taglioni and Fanny Elssler danced in Russia, and Perrot and Saint-L‚on created ballets there. Elssler also danced in the United States, which produced two ballerinas of its own: Augusta Maywood and Mary Ann Lee, both from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
When and where con’t • 20th Century • With time, Petipa's choreographic method settled into a formula. Fokine called for greater expressiveness and more authenticity in choreography, scenery, and costume. He was able to realize his ideas through the Ballets Russes, a new company organized by the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev. • Two great American ballet companies were founded in New York City in the 1940s, American Ballet Theatre and the New York City Ballet. The latter drew many of its dancers from the School of American Ballet established by Balanchine and Kirstein in 1934. Since the mid-20th century, ballet companies have been founded in many cities throughout the United States and in Canada, among them: the National Ballet of Canada, in Toronto (1951); Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, in Montr‚al (1952); the Pennsylvania Ballet, in Philadelphia (1963); and the Houston Ballet (1963).
Ballet Today • Today's ballet repertoire offers great variety. New ballets and reconstructions and restagings of older ballets coexist with new works created by modern-dance choreographers for ballet companies. Choreographers experiment with both new and traditional forms and styles, and dancers constantly seek to extend their technical and dramatic range. The frequent tours of ballet companies allow audiences throughout the world to experience the full spectrum of today's ballet activity.
Famous Ballet Companies • The Royal Ballet- This company used to be named the Sadler's Wells Ballet. Ninette de Valois founded this in 1931 who also taught at the school she created for this company. In 1946, it was relocated to Covent Garden. The company is now based at the Royal Opera House and is the premiere ballet company in U.K. Famous ballet dancers from this camp include Alicia Markova, Margot Fonteyn, Rudolf Nureyev and Antoinette Sibley. • Bolshoi Ballet- Located at Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, the Bolshoi Ballet is a Russian company that was founded in 1776. Known for its repertory of both classics and modern works, this company is famous for its grand scale productions and such dramatic techniques that their dancers pour their hearts out on their every performance. In 1877, this company becomes popular for staging ballet acts such as Petipas Don Quixote and Swan Lake. • Kirov Ballet--Another famous Russian ballet company, this was founded in 1738. Based in St. Petersburg, this was first known as the Imperial Ballet. It only became the Kirov Ballet in 1935, the same time after the time when a prominent leader of a Communist Party was assassinated. The famous dancers that were graduates of this company are acclaimed names such as Anna Pavlova, Rudolf Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov.
Famous Ballet Companies in America • American Ballet Theater (ABT)- based in New York City, was one of the foremost ballet companies of the 20th century. It continues as a leading dance company in the world today. • San Francisco Ballet (SFB)- founded in 1933 as the San Francisco Opera Ballet. The company is currently based in the War Memorial Opera House, San Francisco, California, under the direction of Helgi Tomasson. • New York City Ballet (NYCB)-founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein, Leon Barzin was the company's first music director. Balanchine and Jerome Robbins are considered the founding choreographers of the company. City Ballet grew out of earlier troupes: the Producing Company of the School of American Ballet, 1934; the American Ballet, 1935, and Ballet Caravan, 1936, which merged into American Ballet Caravan, 1941; and directly from the Ballet Society,[1946.
Major Artists (Marie Taglioni) With her weightless technique and uncanny ability to balance on her toes in darned, soft-toe ballet slippers, Marie Taglioni (1804–1884) was the first to make gravity-defying pointework popular among performers and audiences alike. Taglioni went on to dance in Munich and Stuttgart before making her debut with the Paris Opéra in 1827- her father was her primary teacher and choreographer Taglioni created the title role in La Sylphide in 1832
Marie Taglioni • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLK_jGUKM4k&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL9A090DF9072B5F5E
George Balanchine The Russian-born American choreographer George Balanchine formed and established the classical style (relating to music in the European tradition) of ballet in America. In 1921 he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music to study piano while continuing work in ballet at the State Academy of Opera and Ballet in 1933 Balanchine met Lincoln Kirstein, a young, rich American, who invited him to head the new School of American Ballet. Balanchine established himself as one of the world's leading classical choreographers. Almost single-handedly he brought standards of excellence and quality performance to the American ballet
Mikhail Baryshnikov A native of Riga, Mikhail Baryshnikov was born in 1948 and began studying ballet at the age of nine. As a teenager, he entered the school of the Kirov Ballet in Leningrad, graduating from student to principal dancer in 1969. In 1979, Baryshnikov moved from American Ballet Theatre to work with master choreographer George Balanchine at New York City Ballet. n 1980, he returned to American Ballet Theatre, serving for 10 years as artistic director and nurturing a new generation of dancers and choreographers.
Mikhail Baryshnikov con’t • During his illustrious ballet career, Baryshnikov danced more than 100 different works, from the classics Giselle and Don Quixote to Twyla Tharp’s Push Comes to Shove and George Balanchine’s Apollo, and he was a leading guest artist on the world’s greatest stages. From 1990 to 2002, Baryshnikov was director and dancer with White Oak Dance Project, which he co-founded with choreographer Mark Morris. • In addition to his career in dance, Baryshnikov has pursued acting, starring in five films, including his Oscar-nominated performance in The Turning Point. He has been on numerous television shows, among them three Emmy Award–winning specials. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N8__iRsxG_A
Paloma Herrera Born in Buenos Aires, Paloma Herrera began her ballet studies with Olga Ferri at age seven. As a young dancer, she was a first prize winner at several major competitions in South America, and, at the age of 11, studied at the Minsk Ballet School in Russia before returning to Buenos Aires to dance the role of Cupid in Don Quixote at the Teatro Colon. She joined American Ballet Theatre as a member of the corps de ballet in June of 1991, was promoted to Soloist in June of 1993, and to Principal Dancer in March of 1995.
Paloma Herrera con’t • Herrera created Olga in On the Dnieper and leading roles in The Brahms-Haydn Variations, Citizen, Cruel World, Disposition, From Here On Out, How Near Heaven,One of Three, Rabbit and Rogue, Turnstile and Without Words. • Herrera has been a member of Artists Committee for The Kennedy Center Honors since 2004. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMOPF4WYYLE
Famous Ballets • Swan Lake- by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, composed 1875–1876. The scenario, initially in four acts, was fashioned from Russian folk tales and tells the story of Odette, a princess turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer's curse. The choreographer of the original production was Julius Reisinger. The ballet received its premiere on March 4, 1877 at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, billed as The Lake of the Swans. Although it is presented in many different versions, most ballet companies base their stagings both choreographically and musically on the 1895 revival of Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov, first staged for the Imperial Ballet on January 15, 1895, at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. For this revival, Tchaikovsky's score was revised by the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre's chief conductor and composer Riccardo Drigo. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bu_VQg5nOPM
Famous Ballets con’t • GISELLE- is a ballet in two acts with a libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Théophile Gautier, music by Adolphe Adam, and choreography by Jean Coralli and Jules Perrot. The librettist took his inspiration from a poem by Heinrich Heine. The ballet tells the story of a peasant girl named Giselle whose ghost, after her premature death, protects her lover from the vengeance of a group of evil female spirits called Wilis (a type of Slavic fairy also spelled Vila, Wila, Wiła, Veela). Giselle was first presented by the Ballet du Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris, France, on 28 June 1841. The choreography in modern productions generally derives from the revivals of Marius Petipa for the Imperial Russian Ballet (1884, 1899, 1903). • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJfk9cLB-GI
Famous Ballets con’t Serenade • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4ra_L_wPo0 • is a ballet by George Balanchine, subsequently co-founder and balletmaster of New York City Ballet, to Tschaikovsky's 1880 Serenade for Strings in C, Op. 48. Students of the School of American Ballet gave the first performance of Serenade on Sunday, June 10th, 1934, on the Felix Warburg estate in White Plains, N.Y., where Mozartiana had been danced the previous day. It was the first ballet that Balanchine choreographed in America. The official premiere took place March 1st, 1935, with the American Ballet, at the Adelphi Theatre, New York, conducted by Sandor Harmati.
Works Cited • http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/yiannis/dance/history.html • http://www.zeroland.co.nz/ind2.html • http://www.freearticles.com/article/The-Famous-Ballet-Companies/4142 • http://www.dance-teacher.com/content/marie-taglioni • http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ba-Be/Balanchine-George.html • http://www.bacnyc.org/about/baryshnikov • http://www.abt.org/dancers/detail.asp?Dancer_ID=28