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Overview of the Harlem Renaissance By: Bret Enochs and Jenna Campbell . Where? Started in Harlem, New York. Its influence spread throughout the nation and beyond. When? Started after the end of World War I. Went to the middle of the 30s. What?

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slide1

Overview of the Harlem Renaissance

By: Bret Enochs and Jenna Campbell

  • Where?
  • Started in Harlem, New York.
  • Its influence spread throughout the nation and beyond.
  • When?
  • Started after the end of World War I.
  • Went to the middle of the 30s.
slide2

What?

  • Raised significant issues affecting the lives of African-Americans.
  • Rose awareness for the civil right of African-Americans.
  • Was a literary, artistic, cultural, intellectual movement.
slide3

Produced a lot of new music, art, and literature.

  • Allowed African-Americans to express themselves through various types of art.
  • Also produced a racial consciousness.

http://www.jcu.edu/harlem/index.htm

http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap9/9intro.html

group 2
Group 2

The “Great Migration” and how it contributed to the Harlem Renaissance. Post WW1 changes for Blacks.

By: Corey and G

great migration
Great Migration
  • The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970.
  • WHY? Did they migrate?
  • WHERE? did they migrate too?
  • HOW MANY? blacks migrated to north?
harlem hellfighters tuskegee airmen buffalo soldiers
Harlem Hellfighters Tuskegee Airmen buffalo soldiers
  • The 369th Infantry Regiment, formerly the 15th New York National Guard Regiment, was an infantry regiment of the United States Army that saw action in World War I and World War II. The 369th Infantry is known for being the first African-American regiment to serve with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. The regiment was nicknamed the Harlem Hellfighters and the Black Rattlers, in addition to several other nicknames.
  • Harlem Hellfighters
  • Tuskegee Airmen
  • Buffalo Soldiers
post ww1 changes for blacks
Post ww1 changes for blacks
  • Blacks were treated with no respect and were treated unfairly. Many were confused why they were being treated unfairly. Caused many racial riots and problems between the blacks and whites.
  • What were the Jim Crow Laws?
  • How did the Jim Crow laws affect the Blacks?
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Hellfighters
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_soldier
  • http://www.tuskegeeairmen.org/
  • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
harlem matt ellis and grant yurosko
HarlemMatt Ellis and Grant Yurosko

What and Where?

Harlem is a neighborhood located in Manhattan, New York.

why was it built
Why was it Built?

In 1637, European settlers fled to New Amsterdam in lower Manhattan because hostilities with the natives heated up often.

It was named after the Dutch city Haarlem.

how did it become the mecca for african american artists
How did it become the mecca for african American artists?

When Harlem’s housing was first built, there was no transportation to get to Harlem, so no whites moved there.

Black men and women, looking for a place to live, moved to Harlem because of cheap housing.

By the time subway systems and roads reached Harlem, many of the talented and brightest black artists lived in Harlem.

It became known as “the Black Mecca” and the “capital of black America

http://www.ushistory.org/us/46e.asp

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/iraas/harlem/

black economy during renaissance

Black Economy During Renaissance

Dylan Skule and Max Kilkuts

migration to harlem
Migration to Harlem
  • Families migrate North after Jim Crow laws implemented
  • Wished to take advantage of booming economy
  • Not welcomed by locals
  • Forced to move to slums of New York
  • Largest slum was Harlem
economic real estate
Economic Real Estate
  • Black businessmen took over Harlem's new real estate from middle-class Whites
  • Blacks owned apartments, nice houses
  • Many elegant churches and restaurants
  • Doctors, lawyers, and wealthy businessmen flocked to Harlem
life and community
Life and Community
  • Communities like Sugar Hill and Strivers Row founded
  • Harlem became diverse community
  • Classes developed
  • Ranged from very poor to very rich
  • Some church-going citizens and some bootleggers and drug dealers
  • http://www.ushistory.org/us/46e.asp
  • http://www.queerculturalcenter.org/Pages/Bentley/HarlemYears.html
black education during the harlem renaissance

Black Education During the Harlem Renaissance

Sofia Martinez-Lavin

Joshua Meyer

slide16

Southern states didn’t provide educational rights to Blacks

  • New York was the only state without educational segregation
  • Segregation in school was prohibited by Supreme Court law
slide17

Blacks from all over America flooded to Harlem

  • Many schools in Harlem had only black students
  • Became underfunded and low on supplies
slide18

Blacks used music and literature to protest injustice

  • Black students wanted higher education and more funding
  • Universities such as Lincoln University and Cheney University were among the first schools to allow black students.
works cited
Works Cited
  • http://www.jcu.edu/harlem/Education/page_1a.htm
  • http://voices.yahoo.com/the-harlem-renaissance-1920s-2805795.html?cat=37
communism and the harlem renaissance

Communism and The Harlem Renaissance

Jeff Spraker and Jason Miller

communism in the culture
Communism in the Culture
  • The African American Magazine, “The Crusader,” which was run by Cyril Briggs argued that capitalism explioted the African-American working class
  • People felt oppressed by the system and were exploited by their workers
  • Karl Marx’s ideal “workers’ society” seemed ideal and grew popularity. By 1928 14,000 blacks were communist in Harlem.
  • Was a way to bring about social equality for the black community

http://www.tcnj.edu/~fisherc/black_and_red.html

communism in harlem
Communism in Harlem
  • The great depression led to high unemployment which made it a perfect spot for communism to spread its roots.
  • New York in particular had an abusive situation, so Harlem provided a strong base for the communist party.
  • Strikes were organized by the Upper Harlem Council of the Unemployed, some 500,000 strong to protest various topics.
    • Scottsboro Boys- 9 Black boys charged with raping 2 white women on a train. 2 weeks later they were sentenced to death with no evidence.

http://socialistworker.org/2006-1/577/577_12_Communists.shtml

w e b de bois
W.E.B. De Bois
  • Founder of the NAACP
  • Leader among black communities advocating for rights.
  • Joined the Communist party with the belief that it would end black oppression
  • Studied Karl Marx in college and in Berlin
  • Joined the communist party in 1961
  • Strongly believed in 2 communist ideas of free education and discipline for growth and reform.

http://www.tcnj.edu/~fisherc/black_and_red.html

naacp and national urban league purpose
NAACP and National Urban League Purpose

The NAACP-

  • Started after a night of violence in Illinois.
  • Represent African Americans and defend their constitutional rights.

The National Urban League-

  • A community service agency founded in 1910
  • End segregation.

By Paul Wagner and Madison Schlegel

naacp and national urban league impact
NAACP and National Urban League Impact

NAACP-

  • In 1919 it grew to 90,000 members.
  • Brown VS Board of

Education in 1954

National Urban League-

  • Currently has 50,000 members
  • Direct Service in all areas (employment, housing, etc.)
naacp and national urban league major players
NAACP and National Urban League “Major Players”

NAACP-

  • Du Bois
  • Oswald Garrison Villard
  • National Urban League
  • Ruth Baldwin
  • George Edmund Haynes
  • URL’s-
  • http://web.ebscohost.com/hrc/detail?vid=4&hid=19&sid=695b71ea-5455-4c27-a9f3-269fbfb92137%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9aHJjLWxpdmU%3d#db=khh&AN=17989948
  • http://www.naacp.org/pages/naacp-history
  • http://web.ebscohost.com/hrc/detail?vid=4&hid=18&sid=e4593e6c-64de-4e22-bc40-88612cfafa9d%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9aHJjLWxpdmU%3d#db=khh&AN=39037947
  • http://web.ebscohost.com/hrc/detail?vid=4&hid=18&sid=e4593e6c-64de-4e22-bc40-88612cfafa9d%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9aHJjLWxpdmU%3d#db=khh&AN=18142233
themes of the harlem renaissance

Themes of the Harlem Renaissance

  • Some common themes represented in the Harlem Renaissance include:
      • The influence of the experience of slavery
      • Emerging African American folk traditions on black identity
      • The effects of institutional racism
      • The dilemmas essential in performing and writing for leading audiences
      • How to convey the experience of modern black life in the urban North.

Harlem Renaissance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

harlemese
Harlemese
  • The term for the African-American dialect spoken in Harlem, New York City
  • Harlemese was a term used for a form of slang in the 1920’s and 1930’s
  • Harlemese was not a sign of African-Americans being undereducated. It was a language that rejected white Americans vocabulary of terms designed to support the idea of black inferiority.

http://www.wordorigins.org/favicon.icoEncyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance - Aberjhani, Sandra L. West - Google Books

harlem writers
Harlem Writers
  • Nora Hurston- wrote books portraying African American culture
  • -rediscovered and influenced the new generation of African American writers
  • Langston Hughes- his writings were intended to inspire people to move forward and create a great future
  • William Cullen- his writings reflected trends in American thought
  • Considered the “father of nineteenth-century American journalism

http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6125/Bryant-William-Cullen.html

http://ezinearticles.com/?Langston-Hughes---The-Life,-Times,-Works-as-Well-as-Impact-of-a-Versatile-African-American-Writer&id=1122582

http://esperstamps.org/aa61.htm

visual art of the harlem renaissance
Visual Art of the Harlem Renaissance

By: Serena Anand & Shannon Gamarra

arts in the renaissance
Arts in the renaissance
  • The Harlem Renaissance brought about a new age for African American artists. The unseen artistic talents were finally taken to the public eye. Most artists worked in New York City, where this new art was widely accepted. This led to new and noteworthy collection of art.
  • Several new artists came about at this time:
  • Aaron Douglas
  • Augusta Savage
  • LiosMailou Jones
  • Archibald Motley
the artists
The Artists
  • Aaron Douglas (1899-1979): His very stylized paintings were the most bold and dramatic form of visualization of the whole movement. He used his murals as a way to tell the story of African Americans and brought up history that was often ignored.
  • Augusta Savage (1892-1962): She was known for making sculptures that revealed a sense of hope and optimism.
the artists cont
The artists cont.
  • LiosMailou Jones (1905-1998): His paintings were influence by African history and culture. Along with Archibald Motley, he did not live near Harlem, he was still considered an artist of the movement.
  • Archibald Motley (1891-1981): Pursuing his dream of becoming an artist, he dedicated his life to it. Although he was not around during the Harlem Renaissance his paintings of African American scenes and community were still considered within the movement.
  • http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/arts/motley.html
  • http://www.prattlibrary.org/locations/afam/index.aspx?id=8982
growth of music during the renaissance

Growth of Music during the Renaissance

Negin Lajevardi

Caroline Crisp

Group 11 Period 2

major influences
Major Influences
  • Prohibition- Music was played in speakeasies
  • The Great Migration- desperate workers migrated and brought with them new genres of music
  • Clubs and Cabarets- Allowed emerging artists to develop their talent
  • The Industrialization of America- brought more people into the city and new genres flourished with a growing population
impact of music
Impact of Music
  • Gave a lot of African American immigrants pride in a unique genre during difficult times
  • It provided job opportunities for African Americans
  • Many African Americans found success and fame
  • Ex. Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith

This helped Americans help influences of African culture

musicians of the time
Musicians of the Time
  • http://courses.washington.edu/kgb2lit/harlem/music.html
  • http://www.tititudorancea.org/z/harlem_renaissance.htm

Lil Hardin Armstrong

Famous composer , singer and led a band during the Renaissance

Billy Holiday ( Lady Day)

Began singing in jazz clubs

Rose as a social phenomenon

First black women to work with a white orchastra

harlem globetrotters

Organized in Chicago in 1926

  • Predominantly black professional U.S. basketball team
  • Play games all over the world
  • Named to capitalize on the cultural notoriety of one of New York’s African American neighborhoods

Harlem Globetrotters

harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Formed in Harlem in 1923 
  • A famous ballroom in New York City's Harlem neighborhood
  • The team's attitude reflected the Harlem Renaissance movement
slide41

The Harlem Rens were the first team — black or white — to win the World Championship Professional Basketball Tournament, held in 1939. 

VS

The Harlem Globetrotters losing in the final came to the Harlem Rens in 1939. The next year the Globetrotters won the tournament.

slide42

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7032039

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/255394/Harlem-Globetrotters

http://www.blackfives.com/teams/new-york-rens/

what is the speakeasy

What is the Speakeasy?

A speakeasy was a bar or lounge that illegally sold liquor during the Prohibition era.

Speakeasies were very secretive, often requiring a password for someone to enter and having alcohol stored in a hidden cellar.

There were many variations of speakeasies, but the most racially-mixed ones were the less elegant “lap joints,” or working-class speakeasies. An example of this would be “The Sugar Cane.”

In rural areas, speakeasies were run by business owners hoping to make some extra money.

In some areas, the police estimated there were 10 speakeasies on every block.

what was it like
What was it like?
  • A guard sat in of the bolted front door and asked anybody who wanted to get in for a password, for fear of being arrested by the police. If the person answered correctly, he or she was in.
  • “Lap joints” tended to be very crowded, which often resulted in “dancing on a dime,” or shuffling in one spot.
  • Most people who went to “lap joints” were black.
  • The liquor offered was of low quality and used fake labels from popular alcohol companies.
  • Even with small bands performing, parties were often all-night public nuisances, especially from 3:00 at night to 7:00 in the morning. Clubs bribed the police with a free drink or a free meal in order to keep the business going throughout the night.
works cited1
Works Cited

Watson, Steve. “The Harlem Renaissance.” Virginia.edu. N.d.16 March 2012. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG97/blues/watson.html