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Baroque. Naturalism : depiction seeking to imitate nature, not idealistic in the least. Impasto : thick and heavily applied pigment (paint) Renaissance painters strived for perspective and definition, while Baroque artist included the viewer emotionally and intellectually. BERNINI.

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Naturalism: depiction seeking to imitate nature, not idealistic in the least.

  • Impasto: thick and heavily applied pigment (paint)
  • Renaissance painters strived for perspective and definition, while Baroque artist included the viewer emotionally and intellectually.


  • St. Teresa of Ávila in Ecstasy, 1645-52. Marble
  • Cornaro Chapel, framed by corinthean columns in a niche in front of altar.
  • Highly emotional with facial expressions and movement of drapery
  • Descending rays of light are gilt bronze, illuminated from window above

David, marble, 1623.

  • This David unlike Michelangelo’s and Donatello’s is depicted during the battle.
  • Echoes _____________ from Classical Greece? (think Olympics..)
  • Fierce look of determination, heightened sense of emotionalism.
  • Viewer is forced to walked completely around piece to experience the sculpture.
  • Developed new, dramatic lighting effects compared to the chiaroscuro from the later Renaissance, tenebrism.
  • Was a specialist at an early age painting still life, specifically fruit and vegetables.
  • Early work included still life, cardsharps, fortune-tellers (gypsies), and hobo’s.
  • Figures set close to the picture plane, brightly lit.

Boy With a Basket of Fruit, oil on canvas, 1593-94

  • Notice the attention to the fruit and foliage.
  • Lack of background heightens focus on figure.
  • Type of painting is known as “half-figures”

Sick Bacchus, oil on canvas, 1593.

  • What can you tell me?
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5.
http caravaggio kimbellart org exhibit
  • In groups of two/one of three, visit this website and INDIVIDUALLY choose one Caravaggio painting from his “Music and Youth” or “Cardsharps and Fortune Tellers” section and describe why you chose it.
  • What parts of the painting are you specifically interested in, and what does the Kimball Curator have to say about it?

The Calling of Saint Matthew, 1599-1600, oil on canvas.

  • 1st public commission for Contarelli Chapel, Jesus is seen pointing at a tax collector.
  • High in naturalism, but influenced by Renaissance master’s (Michelangelo)

Entombment, 1602-03

  • Oil on canvas
  • Emotional and expressive, this relatively symmetrical grouping is mourning the descent from the cross.
  • Slab of stone is angled to depict DEPTH (as opposed to LINEAR)
  • Void of the background is tenebristic which heightens the moment of this very scene.
followers of caravaggio caravaggisti
Followers of Caravaggio: Caravaggisti
  • Artemisia Gentileschi – Italy
  • Georges de la Tour – France
  • Jusepe de Ribera – Spain/ Italy
  • Diego Velázquez - Spain
artemisia gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes
  • 1625, oil on canvas
  • Baroque naturalism and tenebrism
  • Judith hides the light of the candle so the maidservant can stuff Holofernes’ head in a sack.
george de la tour
George de la Tour
  • Magdalen with Smoking Flame, 1640, oil on canvas.
  • Simplifiedsetting vs. Caravaggio’s naturalism
  • Known for single dramatic candle light source. It conveys the mood for painting
  • Hand on skull= contemplating frailty and vanity (emptiness) of human life.
jusepe de ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
  • Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, 1634
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Church was aiming to draw people back to Catholicism, commissioned artists to depict epic, dramatic, heroic martyrs.
  • Gets skinned alive.
  • Tenbristic effects with intensely realistic aged face.
  • Martyr looks heavenward
diego vel squez
Diego Velásquez
  • Water Carrier of Seville, 1619
  • Well-known water seller
  • Contrasting textures, shiny vs. matte
  • Velásquez = greatest artist to emerge out of Caravaggesque school in Seville
  • Entered Seville painter’s guild in 1617
  • Influenced by Caravaggesquetenebrism and naturalism

“Velázquez's Las Meninas has long captivated viewers by its effect of naturalism. Nineteenth century critics saw it as anticipating the invention of the camera with its effect of capturing a "snapshot" of a moment in time and space. Contemporary critics have emphasized the calculated control Velázquez employed to construct this effect of naturalism. Rather than as a snap-shot, a transparent window, or a spotless mirror of the world, Las Meninas is today seen to be more about the nature of painting, the artist's control over representation, and the status of Velázquez as a court artist. “


Viewer/ Viewed

  • Control of Artist
  • Anticipation of camera?
  • “snap-shot” effect
  • Status of artist:
    • Order of Santiago on his chest
    • Who is the main character depicted here?

Choose one image and write a 8 minute response. You should use appropriate language and vocabulary.