Baroque. Baroque - From the Portuguese or Spanish “ barroco ” meaning “rough of imperfect pearl.” Refers to something being elaborate ; with many details. An insulting term used by historians who preferred the Renaissance. Overview :
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Baroque Baroque - From the Portuguese or Spanish “barroco” meaning “rough of imperfect pearl.” Refers to something being elaborate; with many details. An insulting term used by historians who preferred the Renaissance. • Overview: • The Baroque came about in Rome near the end of the 16th century • Artists were good at drawing and painting the human figure and reproducing complicated perspective. • There is much use of colour and value contrasts in painting. • The style is characterized by TIME, LIGHT and SPACE.
Time: Captures a brief moment in time; often through a sense of frozen movement.
Often a dramatic use of light and shadow. In painting through Chiaroscuro and Tenebrism. In Architecture and Sculpture, through curves and undulating surfaces to reflect the light and cast deep shadows. Light: Chiaroscuro – “Coming out of the darkness.” Where areas with lighter values seem to emerge from areas of surrounding darkness. Tenebrism – Exaggerated strong contrasts between light and dark seen in late 16th century painting. A more dramatic version of chiaroscuro.
Space: Artists are creating works that appear to occupy the same space as the viewer. • Sculpture physically interacts with the viewer’s space in all directions. • Painting has perfected and pushed the boundaries of perspective through the technique of foreshortening. • Architecture uses convex and concave forms to create a sense of interesting space for visitors. Foreshortening – Drawing / painting an object or person that is not parallel to the picture plane. It makes the object / person appear to recede into space.
Italian Baroque… • Baroque Art began in Rome around 1600 AD • Baroque artists were experts at creating realistic human proportions from almost any angle and scenes with complex realistic perspective. • Highly religious and emotional. • Influenced by the Counter-Reformation because the Art is meant to help ordinary people connect with the Catholic religion. • Patrons: Church, Royalty & Nobility
Borromini 19. Francesco Borromini. St. Ivo. (1643-1660 AD) Rome. • Chapel for the University of Rome • movement created by symmetry and curvature • concave and convex forms used • decorative details (e.g. symbol of the Pope)
Interior view of the dome of St. Ivo… • The dome – created by two intersecting equilateral triangles • concave and convex forms • Focus on design, no need for painting or gold leaf to decorate the dome – it appeared just as heavenly remaining pure white.
Other notable works by Borromini… Sant’ Agnese in Agony San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Bernini 20.Gian Lorenzo Bernini. David. (1623 AD) Marble. • created many works for the Pope(s) throughout Rome • used his own face for David • How is this piece different from Donatello and Michelangelo’s Davids? • How did the artist use… • …time, • …light, • …space?
displayed at the Villa Borghese (in Rome), David appears dynamic from all sides.
Other notable works by Bernini… Pluto rapes Persepina (a.k.a. Hades rapes Persephone) The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Bernini continued… Emperor Constantine The Pope’s Throne
Caravaggio 21. Caravaggio. Crucifixion of St. Peter. (1600-1601 AD) Oil on canvas. • One of the most influential painters of the Baroque • Used tenebrism • used everyday people as models for religious paintings (sometimes controversial)
Other notable works by Caravaggio… The Calling of St. Matthew David with the Head of Goliath
Gentileschi 22.Artemesia Gentileschi. Judith and Holofernes. (1625 AD) Oil on canvas. • first recorded female artist in Europe • follower of Caravaggio • Scene: Biblical hero Judith, beheading the Babylonian general, Holofernes. • used tenebrism • figures show foreshortening
Other notable works by Gentileschi… Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes Self Portrait as the Allegory of Painting
Dutch Baroque… • Baroque artists throughout Europe often trained in Rome and brought techniques back to their country to develop their own local style. • Holland was Protestant and Democratic. • They forbade having religious images in Church. • Tended to paint still lifes, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. • Patrons: middle class
Rembrandt 23. Rembrandt. The Return of the Prodigal Son. (1662) Oil on canvas. • Considered greatest Dutch painter. • Created nearly 100 self-portraits throughout his lifetime. • example of his late style – • gold-brown tones with subtle shading • implied psychological reaction • quiet, solemn, brooding • gradually used looser, thicker brushstrokes
Other notable works by Rembrandt… The Nightwatch Bathsheba Taking Her Bath
Vermeer 24. Johannes Vermeer. Girl with a Pearl Earring. (1665 AD) Oil on panel. • Not well known in his own day, increasingly recognized during & after the 19th century. • Vermeer is also known for his delicate portraits - used chiaroscuro and realism. • Master of texture (capturing appearance of different materials) • Subject of this painting: unknown • Believed to use the camera obscura in creating his compositions • Also known for capturing scenes of everyday life in Delft, Holland. • Only completed about 50 paintings in his lifetime.
Other notable works by Vermeer… The Little Street (View of Houses in Delft) The Love Letter