Chapter 8 Vocabulary • Sahara: Largest desert in the world. Northern Africa • Sahel: Southern edge of the Sahara desert • Savanna: Dry grassland plains • Animism: Religion based in spirits (Plants, Animals, Weather) • Djenne-Djeno: West African city on the Niger river • Migration: Moving to a new place • Bantu-Speaking Peoples: Lived in the Savanna south of the Sahara, moved to the southern tip of Africa • Aksum: East African empire that conquered Kingdom of Kush
Diverse Societies in Africa • A Land of Geographic Contrasts • From Deserts to Rain Forests • Sahara and Kalahari deserts are largest in Africa • Rain forest is centered around Congo River Basin • From Fertile Farmlands to Grassy Plains • Mediterranean Climate is best for growing crops and raising animals • Savannas: cover 3/5ths of continent (Grasslands/little rainfall • Desertification: Process of formerly fertile land becoming desert
Early Humans Adapt to Their Environments • Nomadic Lifestyle • Some African tribes that live din deserts or rainforests still practice this life style • Agriculture began in African around 10,000 BC on Savannas in the Nile River Valley
Africans Share Common Characteristics • Family is the most important social unit • Clan: Group that shares common ancestors • Animism: Belief that spirits play an important role in daily life • Griots: Storytellers that keep history alive
Early Societies in West Africa • Djenne-Djeno • Oldest known city in Sub-Sahara Africa (250 BC) • Center of trade on Niger River and camel Routs • The Nok Culture • First West Africans who smelt iron • Pump oxygen into fires!
Bantu Migration • Massive Migration • Migration: A permanent move from one country or region to another • Causes of Migration • Environmental: People move/flee from poor environmental conditions or move to better areas • Economic: People move in search of better jobs/opportunities • Political: People move to avoid persecution or to achieve freedom
Types of Migration • Push Factor: Something forces people out of a region • Pull Factor: Something attracts people to a new area • Effects of Migration • Cultural Diffusion • Clashes between natives and new people • Overpopulation/depopulation
Example of Migration • Bantu Migration: A related tribe of people who migrated out of western Africa into central and southern Africa • Brought iron-making technology and new language to central and southern Africa
Review Questions • What is desertification? • What is animism? • Give one example of a cause for migration, and one example of an effect. • What is the difference between push and pull factors of migration? • Name one specific effect of the Bantu migration.
The Kingdom of Aksum Chapter 8:3
The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum • Conquered the Kingdom of Kush • Located in the country of Ethiopia (Great Horn) • Important Trading Areas • Red sea • Indian Ocean • Arabian Peninsula • Traces history to King Solomon/Queen Sheba’s son • Middle Man for Trade between Africa and Middle East • $$$$$ • Traded: Salt, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds and Gold • **Gold + Salt**
An International Culture Develops • Trading Center • Mixed culture (Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Persian, India and Byzantium) • Aksum adopts to Christianity! • King Ezana • Ethiopia is home to millions of devout Christians even today!! • Ark of the Covenant? • The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion
Aksum Aksumite Innovations The Fall of Aksum Terrace farming Minted coins Canals, cisterns • Lasted 800 • Islamic Invaders • Isolated Christians • Surrounded by Muslims • Moved capital to mountains • Escape the Muslim/Islam invasion