CHEMISTRY. I . Introduction. A. Why study chemistry?. B. Definitions. 1. Chemistry. 2. Matter. 3. Element. 5. Compound. 4. Molecule. Figure 2.1. Figure 3.4B. II . Atomic Chemistry. A. Particles / Structure. Figure 2.3A. B. Atomic & Mass Number. C. Isotopes & Radioisotopes.
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A. Why study chemistry?
A. Particles / Structure
1. Isotopes = more neutrons but stable
2. Radioisotopes = nucleus decay giving off alpha and beta particles, plus gamma rays.
3. Decay = half life
How and why would this activity be so bad for cells?
1. Shells electron organization
2. Valence number of electrons in the outermost shell
3. Electronegativity degree of attraction for electrons
B. Chemical Bonds
a. Electron Sharing
i. Covalent bonds
Molecules sharing a hydrogen
Molecules sharing a charge
1. Why Important?
1. Synthesis, Dehydration, or Anabolic
2. Decomposition, Hydrolytic, or Catabolic
A(OH) + B(H) AB + H2O
AB + H2O A(OH) + B(H)
AB + CD AC + BD
e. Cohesive Forces
b. Temperature Stabilizer or Regulator
1. Definitions & Uses
a. An acid increases the hydrogen ion concentration
H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ (Carbonic)
H2SO4 H+ + H+ + SO4 2- (Sulfuric)
HCl H+ + Cl- (Hydrochloric)
b. A base decreases the hydrogen ion concentration
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O (Sodium Hydroxide)
d. A buffer regulates the pH of a solution
HCO3- + H+ H2CO3
HPO4-2 + H+ H2PO4-
NH3 + H+ NH4+
Why and how does acid precipitation affect vegetation?