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CHEMISTRY. I . Introduction. A. Why study chemistry?. B. Definitions. 1. Chemistry. 2. Matter. 3. Element. 5. Compound. 4. Molecule. Figure 2.1. Figure 3.4B. II . Atomic Chemistry. A. Particles / Structure. Figure 2.3A. B. Atomic & Mass Number. C. Isotopes & Radioisotopes.

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Presentation Transcript
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CHEMISTRY

I. Introduction

A. Why study chemistry?

B. Definitions

1. Chemistry

2. Matter

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5. Compound

4. Molecule

Figure 2.1

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II. Atomic Chemistry

A. Particles / Structure

Figure 2.3A

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C. Isotopes & Radioisotopes

Table 2.3

Figure 2.4B

1. Isotopes = more neutrons but stable

2. Radioisotopes = nucleus decay giving off alpha and beta particles, plus gamma rays.

3. Decay = half life

How and why would this activity be so bad for cells?

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D. Electrons

1. Shells  electron organization

Figure 2.5

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Figure 2.5

2. Valence  number of electrons in the outermost shell

3. Electronegativity  degree of attraction for electrons

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III. Molecular Chemistry

B. Chemical Bonds

A. Definition

1. Definition

2. Types

a. Electron Sharing

i. Covalent bonds

Non-polar

Polar

Figure 2.6

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b. Hydrogen Sharing

Molecules sharing a hydrogen

Figure 2.8

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c. Vander Walls Forces

Molecules sharing a charge

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C. Formulas & Models

1. Why Important?

2. Types

a. Molecular

b. Empirical

c. Structural

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IV. Chemical Reactions

A. Definition

B. Types

1. Synthesis, Dehydration, or Anabolic

2. Decomposition, Hydrolytic, or Catabolic

3. Exchange

A(OH) + B(H) AB + H2O

AB + H2O  A(OH) + B(H)

AB + CD  AC + BD

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C. Factors Affecting Rates

3. ???

2. ???

1. Concentration

4. Others?

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V. Inorganic Molecules

A. Water

1. Properties

c. H-bonding

a. States

b. Polar

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.8

d. Density

e. Cohesive Forces

Figure 2.12

Figure 2.10

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2. Uses

b. Temperature Stabilizer or Regulator

a. Solvent

Figure 2.11

Figure 2.13

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B. Salts

1. Properties

2. Uses

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C. Acids, Bases, pH, & Buffers

1. Definitions & Uses

a. An acid  increases the hydrogen ion concentration

H2CO3  HCO3- + H+ (Carbonic)

H2SO4  H+ + H+ + SO4 2- (Sulfuric)

HCl  H+ + Cl- (Hydrochloric)

b. A base  decreases the hydrogen ion concentration

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O (Sodium Hydroxide)

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c. pH Scale  measures the hydrogen ion concentration

Figure 2.14

d. A buffer  regulates the pH of a solution

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

HPO4-2 + H+  H2PO4-

NH3 + H+  NH4+

Why and how does acid precipitation affect vegetation?