Relative Clauses. What are relative clauses?. Subordinate clauses which allow us to add information about people or things we are talking to, without a need to repeat the name e.g. That is the house . The house was built on the main road.
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What are relative clauses? Subordinate clauses which allow us to add information about people or things we are talking to, without a need to repeat the name e.g. That is the house. The house was built on the main road. That is the housewhich was built on the main road.
STRUCTURE People who work hard have got a successful life [Principal (relative clause) clause] In many of the cases, the relative pronoun works as the subject of the relative clause. In these cases we CAN’T omit the relative pronoun! She is the girl who went to the cinema In other cases, the pronoun works as the object of the relative clause, then we CAN omit the relative pronoun! She is the girl who you want to meet
DEFINING It was my mum who called NON-DEFINING Barcelona, where I studied, is a very popular city. TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES They give essential information about their antecedent and without them, the meaning will be incompleted. That is why you write them without commas. (oracions especificatives) The computer which we bought is very expensive The man who is coming will bring us the present
The relative pronoun you use depends on the thing you're talking about. Generally speaking, the most basic ones are these: • for people • …who/that/whom • for things • …which/that • for places • …where • for reasons • …why • for times • …when • Forpossesions • …Whose
Ok… Lets review how we choose relative pronouns. • Who is a subject or object pronoun for people • Example - I told you about the woman who lives next door. • Which is asubject or object pronoun for animals, buildings, and things Example - Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? • Which alsorefers to a whole sentence • Example - He couldn’t read which surprised me. • Whose is a possession for people animals and things • Example - Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? • Whom is an object pronoun for people. • Example - I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. • That is a subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) • Example - I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.
Remember: Use WHO to refer to people and WHICH to refer to animals, things, … “THAT” can replace WHO and WHICH in Defining Relative Clauses :Did you know the girl WHO/THAT came to the party yesterday?The book WHICH/THAT I’m reading is very interesting.
is used instead of WHO in Formal Speech when it is the Object of the Relative Clause or after a preposition: - I couldn’t talk to a friend + I called him last night: I couldn’t talk to the friend WHOM I called last night. - I don’t know the student + The teacher was shouting at the student: I don’t know the student at WHOM the teacher was shouting. WHOM
WHEN (THAT) shows Time: - I will never forget the day + I met my best friend that day: I’ll never forget the day (WHEN/THAT) I met my best friend. (WHEN can also be omitted in Defining Relative Clauses). Relatives:
refers to Places: -This is the hotel + We are staying at the hotel next weekend: This is the hotel WHERE we are staying next weekend. -The city is interesting + my sister is living in the city: The city WHERE my sister is living is interesting. WHERE
shows Possession and it replaces a Possessive adjective or an ’s possessive: - The man was crying + His house was on fire: The man WHOSE house was on fire was crying. - Have you met the people? + Their son is moving to Washington: Have you met the people WHOSE son is moving to Washington? WHOSE
Is used in DR clauses to mean the thing that Has she told you what’s worrying her? What you need is love WHAT
Can be used in DR clauses to mean the reason why I don’t know why we are arguing WHY
Thereason………… weare holding thismeeting is toseeksolutiontoourproblems Thereason………… he gave us fordelayfrustrated us all Sunday is theday ……….. Weusuallygoshopping Springandautumnaretheseasons……. I likebest Don’tcleantheroom…… mysoon is studying I likethehouse………has a largegarde EXERCISE
Thereason (WHY/THAT/FOR WHICH)weare holding thismeeting is toseeksolutiontoourproblems Thereason (WHICH/THAT) he gave us fordelayfrustrated us all Sunday is theday (WHEN/THAT/ON WHICH)Weusuallygoshopping Springandautumnaretheseasons (WHICH/THAT) I likebest Don’tcleantheroomWHEREmysoon is studying I likethehouseWHICH/THAThas a largegarde EXERCISE
Extra information • The principal sentence keeps the meaning if we omit them. • They go between commas • Examples: • My teacher, who studied with my father, is not going to come today. • Sabadell, where I was born, is a city near Barcelona. • She, who is Canadian, works as a lawyer. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Remember: Defining Relative Clauses: • Don’t take commas. • “That” can replace Who, Which and When. - You can omit Who, Which, When and That when they are not the Subject of the Relative Clause. Non-Defining Relative Clauses: • Go between commas. • You can’t use “That”. • You can’t omit the Relatives. Defining or Non-Defining?
If the verb in the relative clause is followed by a preposition ON, TO, FOR, WITH, then… there are 2 ways to form a relative clause: FORMAL AND INFORMAL STRUCTURE
The woman to whom I talked was very nice. • She is the woman for whom they have been looking. - The preposition becomes before the relative pronoun. - We use the relative pronoun WHOM instead of WHO FORMAL
The woman (WHO) I talked to was very nice. She is a very nice woman (WHO) you can trust in The preposition comes after the verb. INFORMAL
RELATIVE CLAUSES NON-DEFINING DEFINING fgfgfghfgh The information given is not essential,it can be omitted. They give us essential information PRONOUNS PRONOUNS WHO THAT WHICH THAT WHO WHICH WHOSE WHEN WHOSE WHEN/THAT WHOM WHERE WHERE WHAT
Simple Present-Present Continuous -I’m endeavouring to narrate the teacher who penalizes the students who don’t carry out the duties which are given by her. Who penalizes => penalizing Who don’t carry out => not carrying out Which are => can be omitted -The files which have fundamental information are elaborately preserved in the count building. Which have => having -I don’t hear the man who is singing. Who is => can be omitted -I don’t hear the man who was singing. Who was => can’t be omitted Tenses are different. -I don’t hear the man who was singing yesterday. Who was => can be omitted
-The older students who persecuted the younger students in order to get their wages were penalized severely by the manager. Who persecuted => persecuting -I berated the students who were making noise yesterday. Who were => can be omitted Simple Past-Past Continuous
-The security officer who is in charge of this course was injured in trying to preserve us from the assassin. Who is => can be omitted -The boy who was to join us for climbing gave up coming as his mother didn’t let him. Who was => can be omitted Reduction with ‘be
-The products which are being wrapped by the workers who were employed last week, are to be transported to the city. Which are => can be omitted Who were => can be omitted Present-Present Continuous Past-Past Continuous Passive
-The first who inspected us is Mr. Smith. Who inspected => to inspect -The lecturer who is to inspect us is Mr. Smith. Who is to inspect => to inspect -The last car which was polished belongs to me. Which was polished => to be polished -The car which is to be polished belongs to me. Which is to be polished => to be polished Ordinals-Superlatives-First-Last
Typical Mistakes -Do you know anyone having lost his cat? (False) -Do you know anyone who has lost his cat? (True) -The thief having robbed the shop is being questioned now. (False) -The thief who has robbed the shop is being questioned now. (True)
EXCERCİSE • Some animal species are known as predators. They enable the other animals to die by attacking them, in order to feed themselves. • The student has been retained for the weekend. He is also bound to be punished by the general manager. • The friction was brought on the resignation of the principal who has been directing the corporation for four years. It is likely to dissuade me from going on working here. • I paid the lecturer quite a little money to have my daughter studied. Then, he temporized saying anything about the exam. It resulted in failure. • Inform me about the beggar. His wife is said to be the richest woman in the town
The helicopter should have been repaired before it took off. Its propellers broke down as there was no apparent reason. • The city has a lot of hotels and holiday resorts. But it loses its natural beauty day by day. • The village is to be defended by the inhabitants. A lot of people sheltered there in order to protect themselves from the attacks by the foreign troops. • The bank is located in our street. The robbers robbed it. • The bank is in a crowded street. I was robbed there
Some animal species WHICH/THAT are known as predators enable the other animals to die by attacking them, in order to feed themselves. • The student WHO/THAT has been retained for the weekend is also bound to be punished by the general manager. • The friction WHICH/THAT was brought on the resignation of the principal WHO/THAT has been directing the corporation for four years is likely to dissuade me from going on working on here. • The lecturer (WHOM/WHO/THAT) I paid quite a little money to have my daughter studied then temporized saying anything about the exam WHICH/THAT resulted in failure. • Inform me about the beggar WHOSE wife is said to be the richest woman in the town.
The helicopter WHOSE propellers broke down as there was no apparent reason, should have been repaired before it took off. • The city WHICH/THAT has a lot of hotels and holiday resorts loses its natural beauty day by day. • The village WHERE a lot of people sheltered in order to protect themselves from the attacks by the foreign troops is to be defended by the inhabitants. • The bank WHICH the robbers robbed is located in our street. • The bank WHERE I was robbed, is in a crowded street.