relative clauses n.
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Session Objectives By the end of the session you will have an understanding of …. The use of relative clauses The formation of relative clauses Different kinds of relative clauses Common problems with their usage. During the session you will practice…

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Relative Clauses


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    1. Session Objectives By the end of the session you will have an understanding of …. • The use of relative clauses • The formation of relative clauses • Different kinds of relative clauses • Common problems with their usage. During the session you will practice… • Forming and identifying relative clauses. • Matching the meaning of clauses with clause types • Constructing clauses with initial prepositions Relative Clauses

    2. Why use relative clauses? The results were inconclusive. The results were collected by volunteers. The results, which were collected by volunteers, were inconclusive. The results, which were inconclusive, were collected by volunteers.

    3. relative pronoun additional information noun things people places times Formation of relative clauses …the results, which were inconclusive. which who where when whom

    4. there it Choosing the Pronoun • University is the place where students receive higher education. • University is the place where provides an opportunity for students to study. • University is the place where students receive higher education. • University is the place which provides an opportunity for students to study.

    5. Choosing the Pronoun • Northern Spain is the region ______ has the highest rate of this condition. • Northern Spain is the region _______ this condition is the most common. • The survey took place in 1994, ______ consumer spending was highest • The survey took place in 1994, _______ is 10 years earlier than planned.

    6. Choosing the Pronoun • Northern Spain is the region which has the highest rate of this condition. • Northern Spain is the region where this condition is the most common. • The survey took place in 1994, when consumer spending was highest • The survey took place in 1994, which is 10 years earlier than planned.

    7. Ian Laura Mary Newcastle London Manchester Different Kinds of Relative Clauses Ian gave the money to his sister

    8. Different Kinds of Relative Clauses Ian gave the money to his sister who lives in London Ian Laura Mary Newcastle London Manchester

    9. Ian John Newcastle London Different Kinds of Relative Clauses Ian’s brother is getting married

    10. Different Kinds of Relative Clauses Ian’s brother, who lives in London, is getting married Ian John Newcastle London

    11. Ian gave the money to his sister who lives in London. Type 1 – Defining (or differentiating) Ian’s brother, who lives in London, isgetting married Type 2 – non- defining (or giving extra information)

    12. What’s the message? • The problem, which was caused by a lack of oxygen, was traced to a faulty pump. • The problem which was caused by a lack of oxygen was traced to a faulty pump. one more than one How many problems are there?

    13. Matching clause and message. Situation 1There were two sets of results. Those collected by volunteers were inconclusive. The other results were conclusive The results which were collected by volunteers were inconclusive. Situation 2There was only one set of results. They were inconclusive. They were collected by volunteers. The results, which were collected by volunteers, were inconclusive

    14. Defining and Non-Defining Clauses • There are many substances in the world. Some of them are toxic. It is important to regulate these. • There is only one town in the UK called Hexham. It is 20 miles west of Newcastle. The artefacts were excavated near there. • There are many countries in the world. In some of them malaria is common. This policy has been implemented in them. • “Social mobility” was first discussed in the 1950’s. In the 1950’s the standard of living was increasing rapidly

    15. Defining and Non-Defining Clauses • It is important to ……….. • The artefacts were excavated ………….. • This policy ………… • Social mobility was first discussed …………

    16. Defining and Non-Defining Clauses • It is important to regulate substances which are toxic. • The artefacts were excavated near the town of Hexham, which is 20 miles west of Newcastle. • This policy has already been implemented in countries where malaria is common. • Social mobility was first discussed in the 1950’s, when the standard of living was increasing rapidly.

    17. Problems – Using “that” • The reactor which suffered the most damage was examined. • The reactor that suffered the most damage was examined. • Reactor No.2, which suffered severe damage, was examined. • Reactor No.2, that suffered severe damage, was examined. Which of these sentences is incorrect?

    18. Problems – Using “that” You can not use “that” with type 2 non-defining clauses • Reactor No.2, that suffered severe damage, was examined.

    19. Problems – Dropping the pronoun • The areas which the disease had affected were quarantined immediately. • The areas which surrounded the outbreak zone were quarantined immediately. • The valve which controlled the pressure failed after 15 minutes.

    20. Problems – Dropping the pronoun • The areas the disease had affected were quarantined immediately. • The areas which surrounded the outbreak zone were quarantined immediately. • The valve which controlled the pressure failed after 15 minutes. You can drop the relative pronoun if it is the object of the clause.

    21. Prepositions and Pronouns This is a policy. I am very proud of it. This is a policy which I am very proud of. This is a policy of which I am very proud. This is an industry. Millions of people are employed in it This is an industry which millions of people are employed in. This is an industry in which millions of people are employed.

    22. Prepositions and Pronouns • This is the report. I referred to it. • This is a common situation. Problems often occur in it. • This is a new discovery. Very little is known about it. • This is the level. Above this level the project becomes uneconomical. • Subjects were exposed to radiation. The amount of radiation is unknown.

    23. Prepositions and Pronouns • This is the report to which I referred. • This is a common situation in which problems often occur. • This is a new discovery about which very little is known. • This is the level above which the project becomes uneconomical. • The amount of radiation to which subjects were exposed is unknown.

    24. Problems - What are you referring to? • Many people did not register on the system, which was illegal. • Professor White did not attend the meeting, which was very disappointing.

    25. Summary • The choice of pronoun is not always simple. • The kind of clause can often affect the message you send • “That” can only be used in defining clauses. If in doubt, don’t use it. • The relative pronoun can be dropped if it is the object of the clause. If in doubt, don’t drop it. • Don’t leave prepositions “hanging” at the end of a clause. • Make sure it is clear what your clause is referring to.

    26. References Grammar References Ackles, N.M. (2003) The Grammar Guide. Michigan: University of Michigan Press Swan, M. (1995) Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press Yule, G. (2006) Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press Further PracticeELMO - https://elmo.ncl.ac.uk/Default.aspx → study → search → skill → Grammar →Definitions Murphy: English Grammar in Use – Units 91-95 Yule: Oxford Practice Grammar – Chapter14 Willis: Collins Cobuild Students Grammar – Unit 194, 196 Further Help One to one advisory session – contact insessional@ncl.ac.uk Next Session Participle phrases