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DNA REPLICATION. Animation gone Crazy. DNA Replicates and Replicates. DNA REPLICATION. Semi-conservative = one of the parent DNA strands is passed to the daugher DNA + one new strand SNEAK PREVIEW:  DNA REPLICATION PLAYERS (enzyme review). Fill out DNA Replication Enzymes CHART.

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Presentation Transcript
animation gone crazy
Animation gone Crazy
  • DNA Replicates and Replicates
dna replication1
DNA REPLICATION
  • Semi-conservative = one of the parent DNA strands is passed to the daugher DNA + one new strand

SNEAK PREVIEW:

DNA REPLICATION PLAYERS(enzyme review)

fill out dna replication enzymes chart
Fill out DNA Replication Enzymes CHART
  • Lots of enzymes are needed to start each step
topoisomerase
Topoisomerase
  • Topoisomerase Youtube I and II (1:45)
  • Topoisomerase Animation (2:16)
slide8

Enzyme Helicase:separates(breaking H-bonds) double helix at the replication forkDNA-RNA-Protein (see ani)YOU TUBE DNA replication (1:05)

dna helicase
DNA Helicase
  • The enzyme is unwinding the chain and breaking the H-bonds between the complementary base pairs (A-T, G-C).
rna primer
RNA Primer
  • Nucleotides for the starting point for DNA replication
  • Short strands of RNA
dna replication is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes
DNA replication is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes.
  • Called Replication Bubbles
  • They will eventually all meet to form whole

replicated strand

ssb s single strand binding proteins
SSB’s single strand binding proteins
  • Stabilize the DNA strands as they are being replicated
  • Prevents rejoining of DNA strands
dna polymerases
DNA Polymerases
  • DNA Polymerase I
  • Cuts off RNA primers and fills in with DNA (between Okazaki fragments) –lagging strand
  • Can proofread
  • DNA Polymerase III
  • Elongates the strand by adding DNA nucleotides on leading strand
  • Also proofreads and corrects the DNA strand
leading strand lagging strand
Leading Strand Lagging Strand
  • Template strand of DNA
  • Continuous addition of nitrogenous bases
  • in 5’ to 3’ direction
  • McGraw-Hill Replication Fork
  • Other DNA strand
  • Forms short strands of Okazaki fragments (that will be joined later)
  • in the 5’ to 3’ direction
  • DNA Replication You Tube (1:35)
slide22

OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS

  • The short strands of newly made DNA fragments on the lagging strand are called Okazaki fragments after the Japanese Biochemist Reiji Okazaki.
slide24

DNA LIGASEis the enzyme that joins the Okazaki fragments (sugar -phosphate backbone) with covalent bondsDNA REPLICATION (look for ligase) 2:00

summary
SUMMARY
  • Summary Youtube of DNA replication (4:11)
  • Good explanation of the 5’ to 3’ strands and leading and lagging strands
how fast
How Fast?
  • Prokaryotic DNA polymerase can work at about 1000 bases per second.
  • Eukaryotic DNA polymerase can work at about 50 bases per second.
animation dna replication
Animation: DNA Replication
  • DNA makes DNA
  • *DNA with enzymes cartoons
dna replication activity work in lab groups
DNA Replication ActivityWork in Lab Groups
  • Card stock papers are original DNA strands
  • Colored paper are new DNA strands
  • MAKE OWN ENZYMES-construction paper
telomeres
Telomeres
  • At the ends of each chromosome is a protective cap called a telomere.
  • Each time a cell divides, the telomeres are snipped shorter,
telomerase
Telomerase
  • enzyme which adds DNA sequence repeats ("TTAGGG" in all vertebrates) to the 3' end of DNA strands (an overhang)
  • McGraw Hill Telomeres Animation
slide36
QUIZ
  • Activity (choose your enzymes and proteins)
movie
MOVIE
  • Media Showcase (cool animation)
  • Replication Overview Movie
question
QUESTION
  • In this diagram of the process of DNA replication at a replication fork, the strand labeled B is the:
  • A template strand
  • B lagging strand
  • C leading strand
  • D Okazaki fragment
  • E RNA primer
question1
QUESTION
  • In this diagram of the process of DNA replication at a replication fork, the newly synthesized DNA strand labeled C is the: A coding strand
  • B parental DNA
  • C leading strand
  • D lagging strand
answer
ANSWER
  • C lagging strand
  • The lagging strand is the newly synthesized DNA where addition of nucleotides is on the end opposite or away from the replication fork.
question2
QUESTION
  • In this diagram of the process of DNA replication at a replication fork, the black boxes labeled D and E are:
  • A RNA primers
  • B DNA template strands
  • C Okazaki fragments
  • D DNA polymerase
  • E Newly synthesized DNA strand
answer1
ANSWER
  • A. RNA primers
  • The initiation of replication always starts with a short RNA piece. The DNA replicating enzymes will only add nucleotides to the 3' end of DNA.
question3
QUESTION
  • For the DNA strand 5'-TACGATCATAT-3' the correct complementary DNA strand is: A 3'-TACGATCATAT-5
  • 'B 3'-ATGCTAGTATA-5‘
  • C 3'-AUGCUAGUAUA-5‘
  • D 3'-GCATATACGCG-5‘
  • E 3'-TATACTAGCAT-5'
answer2
ANSWER
  • B 3'-ATGCTAGTATA-5'