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AIDS: Case Study. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Disease. In 2009, the WHO estimated 33.4 million people with AIDS worldwide 2.7 million new HIV infections each year. Disease. Final stage of HIV Considered a Pandemic Interferes with the immune system. Disease Causing Agent.

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aids case study

AIDS: Case Study

Acquired

Immune

Deficiency

Syndrome

disease
Disease
  • In 2009, the WHO estimated 33.4 million people with AIDS worldwide
  • 2.7 million new HIV infections each year
disease1
Disease
  • Final stage of HIV
  • Considered a Pandemic
  • Interferes with the immune system
disease causing agent
Disease Causing Agent
  • Lysogenic virus
infectious mechanism
Infectious Mechanism
  • Transmitted through body fluids
transmission
Transmission
  • Mucous membranes and blood stream:
    • Blood
    • Hypodermic needles
    • Vaginal, oral, or anal sex
    • Pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Immunosuppressant
    • Opportunistic infections
    • Tumors
  • Flu-like illness upon contraction (sometimes)
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Blood Testing
treatment
Treatment
  • Drug ‘cocktails’
  • HAART
    • Highly active anti retroviral therapy
  • Expensive
  • Multiple side effects
  • Not available in all countries
cures
Cures?
  • There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS
major misconceptions
Major Misconceptions
  • HIV is the same as AIDS
  • Sex with a virgin cures AIDS
  • HIV antibody testing is unreliable
  • HIV can be transmitted by:
    • Hugging
    • Touching
    • Kissing
    • Coughing
    • Sneezing
  • HIV positive people can be detected by their appearance
major misconceptions1
Major Misconceptions
  • HIV cannot be transmitted through oral sex
  • HIV is transmitted by mosquitoes
  • HIV cannot live for very long outside the body
  • HIV only infects homosexual men and drug users
  • A woman with HIV cannot have children
  • AIDS came from human-monkey intercourse
h istorical
Historical
  • 60 million people infected worldwide
  • 25 million deaths
  • First reported on June 5th, 1981
  • By CDC due to 5 homosexual men contracting pneumocystis pneumonia
historical
Historical
  • Originally called GRID
    • Gay Related Immune Deficiency
  • 4 H Disease
    • Homosexual, Heroin user, Haitians, Hemophiliacs
historical1
Historical
  • First positive case from the Congo in 1959
  • Genetic studies show it jumped from chimpanzees around 50 years earlier
historical2
Historical
  • Most likely entered the U.S. from Haiti
historical3
Historical
  • Rock Hudson
  • Freddie Mercury
  • Arthur Ashe
  • Magic Johnson
  • Isaac Asimov
political impact
Political Impact
  • Truly and international disease
  • If a country acts quickly spread can be slowed
  • Used to be a death sentence
africa
Africa
  • Worst affected continent
  • 9 countries have more than 10% of adult population infected
  • Botswana = 24.8%
  • South Africa = 17.8%
    • ~5.6 million people have HIV
    • Most of any country
political
political
  • Spending
  • Education
  • Medicine and Health
    • Health workers
    • Diagnostic tests
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • Why is HIV considered an international disease?
  • Is AIDS a pandemic? Why or why not?
  • How does scientific education affect the spread of AIDS?
  • How has HIV changed with regard to lifespan over the last 60 years?
  • Why is Africa called a continent of orphans?
assessment
Assessment
  • 1. What were the major populations initially at risk of contracting HIV in the U.S.?
  • 2. What population is the fastest rising group that is contracting HIV?
  • 3. What are 3 ways that HIV can be transmitted?
  • 4. What region of the world is currently the most affected by HIV and AIDS?
  • 5. Describe one of the major symptoms of HIV or AIDS.
assessment1
Assessment
  • 6. What do you think is the best way for the CDC and WHO to handle the current AIDS pandemic? What do you think is the best preventative technique?
bibliography
Bibliography
  • “AIDS” Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia (2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS
  • History of AIDS 1987 – 1992. AVERT: AVERTing HIV and AIDS. (2011) http://www.avert.org/aids-history87-92.htm
  • "A Pocket Guide to Adult HIV/AIDS Treatment February 2006 edition". Department of Health and Human Services. February 2006. http://hab.hrsa.gov/tools/HIVpocketguide/PktGPEP.htm.
  • World Health Organization (1990). "Interim proposal for a WHO staging system for HIV infection and disease". WHO Wkly Epidem. Rec.65 (29): 221–228.
  • Grant I, Sacktor H, McArthur J (2005). "HIV neurocognitive disorders". In H.E. Gendelman, I. Grant, I. Everall, S. A. Lipton, and S. Swindells. (ed.) (PDF). The Neurology of AIDS (2nd ed.). London, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 357–373.
  • "HIV and Its Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Archived from the original on February 4, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050204141148/http://www.cdc.gov/HIV/pubs/facts/transmission.htm.
  • UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update“
  • Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL et al (1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature397 (6718): 436–441.