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Case Study Research Manufacturing and Technology Management Research Methodology Workshop 2008

Case Study Research. Outline. What is a case?Why case study research?Designing case studiesExample 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-upsExample 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech clusterSummary. Case Study Research. What is a case?. Case Study Research. What is a case?.

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Case Study Research Manufacturing and Technology Management Research Methodology Workshop 2008

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    1. Case Study Research Case Study Research Manufacturing and Technology Management Research Methodology Workshop 2008 Dr Erik Stam University of Cambridge 12.15-13.15 hrs, 26 March 2008 Before: - Working with industry After: - data analysis / survey Interviewing Background: economics (quantitative analysis of secondary data: econometrics), human geography (quantitative analysis of...; surveys)12.15-13.15 hrs, 26 March 2008 Before: - Working with industry After: - data analysis / survey Interviewing Background: economics (quantitative analysis of secondary data: econometrics), human geography (quantitative analysis of...; surveys)

    2. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    3. Case Study Research What is a case?

    4. Case Study Research What is a case? A person: . A site: an organization a country An artefact: technology, product Units of analysis in case studies: Events, activities

    5. Case Study Research A case study is an empirical enquiry that: Investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and multiple sources of evidence are used (Yin 2003:13-14).

    6. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    7. Case Study Research Why case study research? Emphasis on (societal, historical) context Trying to reach a full explanation of a phenomenon within a unit of analysis Interpret events, uncovering processes (Mohr 1982) how and why questions Problem solving: closeness to practitioners (<-> abstract variables in much quantitative research) Working with Industry

    8. Case Study Research Why case study research? Rule of thumb: more variables than cases (<-> survey research: more cases than variables) Relevant mechanisms, variables are not yet clear

    9. Case Study Research Why case study research? Three important uses: Motivation of research (falsify theories) Inspiration for new ideas (theory building) Illustration: concrete examples of theoretical constructs, show how the causal relationships work e.g. dynamic capabilities: Cisco (Mayer & Kenney 2004); IDEO (Hargadon & Sutton 1997)

    10. Case Study Research Accusation: Case study research is a convenience research strategy this study used the case study-method because of the complexity of the phenomenon studied. We did in-depth interviews with key actors in the firm. Not much is known about X, hence we engage in theory building with case study research

    11. Case Study Research Three types of case study research

    12. Case Study Research Theory building (Eisenhardt 1989) unchartered waters, research as a voyage of discovery grounded theory: iterations between observations and emerging theory (Strauss & Corbin 1990)

    13. Case Study Research Theory testing (Yin 2003) Social experiment internal (causal connections) and external validity (generalisability: stat-anal) reliability (inter-subjectivity; protocols) construct validity (operationalisation of concepts)

    14. Case Study Research Problem solving (Van de Ven 2007) Practical problem central: engage with stakeholders Working with Industry & Policy

    15. Case Study Research

    16. Case Study Research

    17. Case Study Research Research in practice

    18. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    19. Case Study Research Designing case studies How many cases? 1 (Dyer & Wilkins 1991): Talking pig (exceptional case) Multiple (Eisenhardt 1989=4-10) Phineas Gage Talking PigPhineas Gage Talking Pig

    20. Case Study Research Designing case studies Sampling: Statistical generalization (cases are representative for a wider population: sample -> population) Analytical generalization (adequacy of theoretical inferences): replication logic of sampling (multiple case studies) Select contrasting cases (independent/dependent variables): counterfactual Select similar cases: saturation

    21. Case Study Research Accusation: Case study research is unscientific because of limited generalizability Analytical generalization, not statistical generalization Much statistical generalizations are still no universal generalizations (research done in the US (biotech), does not necessarily apply to Germany (business services) )Analytical generalization, not statistical generalization Much statistical generalizations are still no universal generalizations (research done in the US (biotech), does not necessarily apply to Germany (business services) )

    22. Case Study Research Designing case studies Timeframe: Retrospective: +: select on the dependent variable +: compress time (history) Longitudinal: +: no survival bias +: measure the effect of designed interventions

    23. Case Study Research Designing case studies Qualitative, quantitative data: Triangulation in method N: survey (>40) semi-structured interviews (10-40) unstructured interviews (1-10) participant observation (1)

    24. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    25. Case Study Research

    26. Case Study Research Development of the spatial organization firm B

    27. Case Study Research Explaining changes in the spatial organization of high-growth start-ups (Stam 2007) No (complete) theory: theory testing Initial quantitative survey to explore the field Theoretical sampling: only 8 high-growth start-ups (defined as) that moved their headquarters out of the region of origin Matched pairs with non-moved hgsu, and with non-growth su ...in the end: 33 cases Semi-structured interviews, retrospective life course analysis of all (128) locational events

    28. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    29. Case Study Research Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Cambridge: highest nr of patents per capita (80.8) in the UK (13.7 / 10000 inh) Highest % of product innovating firms (39.7) in the UK (22%) Highest vc invested per capita in EuropeCambridge: highest nr of patents per capita (80.8) in the UK (13.7 / 10000 inh) Highest % of product innovating firms (39.7) in the UK (22%) Highest vc invested per capita in Europe

    30. Case Study Research The decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster (Stam & Garnsey 2008) Emphasis on quantitative data (employment, establishments, patents) Longitudinal: 1987-2006 Theory testing: industry life cycle theory ecological carrying capacity theory Need for additional qualitative data to uncover the causal mechanisms

    31. Case Study Research Outline What is a case? Why case study research? Designing case studies Example 1: changes in the spatial organization of high growth start-ups Example 2: the decline of the Cambridgeshire high-tech cluster Summary

    32. Case Study Research Summary All research includes cases, but not everything is case study research Focus on context: uniqueness + analytical generalization 3 types: theory building, theory testing, problem solving Design choices: nr of cases, timeframe, type of data

    33. Case Study Research References Dyer, W.G. and Wilkins, A.L. (1991) Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt, Academy of Management Review 16(3): 613-619. Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989) Building Theories from Case Study Research, Academy of Management Review 14(4): 532-550. Eisenhardt, K.M. (1991) Better Stories and Better Constructs: The Case for Rigor and Comparative Logic, Academy of Management Review 16(3): 620-627. Mohr, L. (1982) Explaining organizational behaviour. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Stam, E. (2007) Why butterflies dont leave. Locational behavior of entrepreneurial firms, Economic Geography, 83.1, 27-50. Stam, E. and Garnsey, E. (2008) Limits to cluster growth, Work in progress Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage: London. Van de Ven, A. (2007) Engaged Scholarship. A guide for organizational and social research. Oxford University Press: Oxford. Yin, R. (2003) Case Study Research. Design and Methods. 3rd edition. Sage: London.

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