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Nutrients. Ch 5 Lesson 2. Six Nutrients. Carbohydrates Protein Fats Vitamins Minerals Water *each nutrient has a unique part in maintaining the normal growth and body function. CARBOHYDRATES. the starches and sugars present in foods body’s preferred source of energy

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Ch 5 Lesson 2

six nutrients
Six Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

*each nutrient has a unique part in maintaining the normal growth and body function

  • the starches and sugars present in foods
  • body’s preferred source of energy
  • 4 calories per gram
  • Two types of carbs
    • Simple- sugars, fructose, dextrose
      • Ex: fruits, cookies, donuts, white bread
    • Complex- Starches
      • Ex: whole grain breads, oats, brown rice
role of carbohydrates
Role of Carbohydrates
  • body converts carbohydrates into glucose, which is your body’s main source of energy
  • extra glucose gets stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles
    • when you need energy the glycogen is converted back into glucose
    • if you take in more carbohydrates than your body needs or can store, the excess carbs are stored as fat
  • FIBER- an indigestible complex carbohydrate; found in tough, stringy vegetables, fruits, and whole grains
    • Helps move waste through your body
    • Reduce risk of heart disease; 20-30 grams
  • nutrient that help build and maintain body cells and tissues; they are made of long chains of amino acids
  • Body manufactures all but 8 of the 20 amino acids
    • Those your body can’t manufacture are essential amino acids
  • Two Types of Protein
    • Complete- contains adequate amounts of all eight essential amino acids
      • Fish, chicken, eggs, milk, cheese
    • Incomplete- lack one or more of the essential amino acids
      • Beans, nuts, peas, whole grains
role of protein
Role of Protein

Build new cells and tissues; especially during growth periods

Body replaces worn-out cells by making new ones from protein

Can use protein for energy, not main source

4 calories per gram

  • some fat in the diet is necessary for good health
  • Fats are types of Lipids- a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
    • Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbs or protein
    • fat=9 calories per gram
role of fats
Role of Fats

Concentrated form of energy

Transport vitamins A,D,E and K in your blood

Source of linoleic acid- essential fatty acid needed for healthy skin and growth

Help satisfy hunger longer than other foods

No more than 20-30 percent of your daily calorie intake should be fats

fat cont
Fat (cont)
  • Cholesterol- a waxy lipid like substance that circulates in blood
    • Your body uses the small amount it manufactures to make cell membranes and nerve tissue
    • Excess blood cholesterol is deposited in arteries, including those in your heart which increases risk of heart disease
    • Can reduce risks by eating diets low in saturated fats and cholesterol
  • compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients
  • Two Types of Vitamins
    • Fat Soluble- are absorbed, stored, and transported in fat; body stores these in your fatty tissue, live and kidneys; excess build up can be toxic
    • Water Soluble- dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion; the body does not store these; you need to replenish them regularly
  • substances that the body cannot make but that are needed for forming healthy bones, teeth, and for regulating many vital body processes
    • Calcium- builds bones and teeth
    • Phosphorus- gives bones and teeth rigidity; essential in cell metabolism
    • Magnesium- enzyme activator related to carbohydrate metabolism; aids in bone growth
    • Iron- part of the red blood cells’ oxygen and carbon dioxide transport system
  • Vital to every body function!
    • Transports nutrients and carries wastes from your cells
    • Lubricates your joints and mucous membranes
    • Drink 8 cups of water a day to maintain health