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Blue Nile - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Blue Nile
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  1. Nile Nile River Basin Sudd Swamp BlueNile White Nile

  2. Basin Population • Ten Riparian States • Egypt • Sudan • Ethiopia • Uganda • Rwanda • Tanzania • Kenya • D.R. Congo • Eritrea • Burundi

  3. Issues in the Nile Basin • Ethiopia • Generates 85% water reaching Egypt’s Aswah Dam • Second most populated riparian state • “The Single most important strategic interest is striving to attain food security in a chronically famine-prone region…and all scenarios [involve] more intense use of the western Nile watershed” Waterbury • Egypt • 96% of population live in Nile Delta/Basin • Entirely dependent on Nile waters – Only 4% from underground reserves • Considered the most powerful riparian state in basin • Sudan • 60% of Land Mass in Basin • Sudd Swamp – Evap loss of 50% of all Water in White Nile • Civil war • Historically always sided with Egypt in Nile Issues

  4. Unique Issues to Nile Basin • Historic precedence • Colonial and Egyptian control • Egypt and Northern Sudan do not contribute to water generation in the Nile • Majority of the riparian states became independent nations since the 1960’s • Political and economic basis weak

  5. International Agreements • 1899 Anglo-Egyptian • No water withdrawn upstream of Egypt without Egyptian and British consent • 1929 – Egyptian and British Agreement • British represented Kenya, Tanzania and Sudan • 93% water of Nile allocated to Egypt, 7% to Sudan • All upstream projects approved by Egypt • 1959 – Egypt and Sudan • 75% to Egypt, 25% to Sudan • Rejected by all of the other riparian states when they became independent

  6. Water Allocation in the Basin

  7. Riparian States Interests • Status Quo • Egypt • Uganda • New Allocations • Ethiopia • Sudan • Eritrea • Indifferent • Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi

  8. How do you allocate the water in the Nile?

  9. Beaumont’s Proposal50/50 Historical/Generation Proposed Allocation

  10. Brichier-Colomba (1996) 33% weight to each factor Population of Riparian’s country in BasinRiparian's Area of BasinAverage amount of water used

  11. What factors should be considered for allocations in the Nile Basin?

  12. Waterbury’s CriteriaEqual Weighting for each factor • Ratio of water flowing across a riparian's border to the total discharge of the watercourse • Proportion of the ripairan's total population living in the basin • Total amount of irrigable land that could be farmed with watercourse water without extra-basin transfers • Amount of alternative, utilizable water available in aquifers, regionally appropriate rainfall and stored water (deductions) • Basin needs per capita to protect life and basic health • Allocation necessary to protect existing wetlands and ecosystems

  13. What’s Happening in the Basin?

  14. Recent History of Cooperation • 1992 • Council of Ministers of Water Affairs (Nile-COM) • All riparian states represented • 1995 • Nile River Basin Action Plan • Cooperative framework for management of the Nile • Endorsed by all riparians • 1997 • World Bank agrees to play a lead role in coordinating external finances • 1997 • Egypt announces (unilaterally) New Nile Valley Development • 1998 • NBI Shared Vision Plan developed • 1999 • Nile Basin Initiative formally established

  15. Nile Basin Initiative • Goal: • Achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from the common resources • Objectives: • Develop water resources in a sustainable and equitable way to ensure prosperity, security and peace for all its people • Ensure efficient water management and optimal use • Ensure cooperation and joint action between states • Target poverty eradication and promote economic integration • Ensure the program results in a move from planning to action

  16. Recent Developments, cont. • 2001 • Sub-Basin agreements between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia • Agreement to build dams and expand irrigation within Ethiopia with the plan to sell power to Sudan and Egypt • Sept. 28, 2005 • Largest ever dam to be built in Ethiopia at Kara Dobe on the Awash River with Sudan and Egypt providing financial support

  17. Questions • How did colonialism influence the development of water resources in the Nile basin? • What factors impinge on the reaching agreement among the Nile River Riparian nations? • Beaumont (2002) proposes a water allocation scheme to fit the “equitable and reasonable” call in the 1997 UN Convention on a 50% generation/50% historical split. Is this is applicable to the Nile River Basin? • The Nile Basin Initiative did not start with specific water projects, but rather education, development of skilled personnel and inclusiveness of all stakeholders. Will this work?