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Nile Nile River Basin Sudd Swamp BlueNile White Nile
Basin Population • Ten Riparian States • Egypt • Sudan • Ethiopia • Uganda • Rwanda • Tanzania • Kenya • D.R. Congo • Eritrea • Burundi
Issues in the Nile Basin • Ethiopia • Generates 85% water reaching Egypt’s Aswah Dam • Second most populated riparian state • “The Single most important strategic interest is striving to attain food security in a chronically famine-prone region…and all scenarios [involve] more intense use of the western Nile watershed” Waterbury • Egypt • 96% of population live in Nile Delta/Basin • Entirely dependent on Nile waters – Only 4% from underground reserves • Considered the most powerful riparian state in basin • Sudan • 60% of Land Mass in Basin • Sudd Swamp – Evap loss of 50% of all Water in White Nile • Civil war • Historically always sided with Egypt in Nile Issues
Unique Issues to Nile Basin • Historic precedence • Colonial and Egyptian control • Egypt and Northern Sudan do not contribute to water generation in the Nile • Majority of the riparian states became independent nations since the 1960’s • Political and economic basis weak
International Agreements • 1899 Anglo-Egyptian • No water withdrawn upstream of Egypt without Egyptian and British consent • 1929 – Egyptian and British Agreement • British represented Kenya, Tanzania and Sudan • 93% water of Nile allocated to Egypt, 7% to Sudan • All upstream projects approved by Egypt • 1959 – Egypt and Sudan • 75% to Egypt, 25% to Sudan • Rejected by all of the other riparian states when they became independent
Riparian States Interests • Status Quo • Egypt • Uganda • New Allocations • Ethiopia • Sudan • Eritrea • Indifferent • Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi
Beaumont’s Proposal50/50 Historical/Generation Proposed Allocation
Brichier-Colomba (1996) 33% weight to each factor Population of Riparian’s country in BasinRiparian's Area of BasinAverage amount of water used
Waterbury’s CriteriaEqual Weighting for each factor • Ratio of water flowing across a riparian's border to the total discharge of the watercourse • Proportion of the ripairan's total population living in the basin • Total amount of irrigable land that could be farmed with watercourse water without extra-basin transfers • Amount of alternative, utilizable water available in aquifers, regionally appropriate rainfall and stored water (deductions) • Basin needs per capita to protect life and basic health • Allocation necessary to protect existing wetlands and ecosystems
Recent History of Cooperation • 1992 • Council of Ministers of Water Affairs (Nile-COM) • All riparian states represented • 1995 • Nile River Basin Action Plan • Cooperative framework for management of the Nile • Endorsed by all riparians • 1997 • World Bank agrees to play a lead role in coordinating external finances • 1997 • Egypt announces (unilaterally) New Nile Valley Development • 1998 • NBI Shared Vision Plan developed • 1999 • Nile Basin Initiative formally established
Nile Basin Initiative • Goal: • Achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from the common resources • Objectives: • Develop water resources in a sustainable and equitable way to ensure prosperity, security and peace for all its people • Ensure efficient water management and optimal use • Ensure cooperation and joint action between states • Target poverty eradication and promote economic integration • Ensure the program results in a move from planning to action
Recent Developments, cont. • 2001 • Sub-Basin agreements between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia • Agreement to build dams and expand irrigation within Ethiopia with the plan to sell power to Sudan and Egypt • Sept. 28, 2005 • Largest ever dam to be built in Ethiopia at Kara Dobe on the Awash River with Sudan and Egypt providing financial support
Questions • How did colonialism influence the development of water resources in the Nile basin? • What factors impinge on the reaching agreement among the Nile River Riparian nations? • Beaumont (2002) proposes a water allocation scheme to fit the “equitable and reasonable” call in the 1997 UN Convention on a 50% generation/50% historical split. Is this is applicable to the Nile River Basin? • The Nile Basin Initiative did not start with specific water projects, but rather education, development of skilled personnel and inclusiveness of all stakeholders. Will this work?