The DRR Process: Expanding Partnerships Vertically and Horizontally.
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“Much has been learnt from the creative disaster prevention efforts of poor communities in developing countries. Prevention policy is too important to be left to governments and international agencies alone. To succeed, it must also engage civil society, the private sector and the media”
Kofi Annan 1999
* With training
National Building Code:
Hazard mitigation to be included in soon-to-be released International Building Code.
Town and Country Planning Act (1957):
Development Orders now include hazard mitigation in the planning of developments. Only cover 5 of 13 parishes and major towns and cities.
Local Improvements Act (1914)
Regulates subdivision of Land. It encourages hazard mitigation, but probably constrained by inadequate information
The Parish Councils Building Act (1908)
Mainly concerned with structural integrity of buildings for construction purposes, but not on site location. Hazard mitigation considerations – negligible.
Hill Slope Degradation
Flooding- House at Treasure Beach
Flooding- NWC Pumping station at Bigwoods
Flooding of housing dev. After hurricane Lilli
Geophysical: Earthquakes, Landslides, Volcanic Events, etc
Climatic: Hurricanes, Floods, Drought, Windstorm, Northers etc
Biological: Human, Animal and Plant Diseases
Technological: Fires, Air / Marine Transport Accidents, Releases of Toxics and Biological Agencies
Other: Civil Disorder, Terrorism, Conflict, War, Displaced persons
Past Events may not be a reliable guide to future events -:
Address Causes as well as Symptoms some Natural & Human induced threats
How can mitigation strategies expand, so that the major political, economic and social pressures are addressed…
as well as the technical factors?
Unenforced, and inadequate building codes are a symptom of vulnerability that require ‘direct’ mitigation measures:
“It is vital that those involved in disaster work accept that the reduction of disasters is about reducing vulnerability, and that involves changing the processes that put people at risk in addition to modifying the impact of the hazards themselves”
Piers Blaikie, Terry Cannon, Ian Davis and Ben Wisner 1994
“ some Natural & Human induced threatsMuch has been learnt from the creative disaster prevention efforts of poor communities in developing countries. Prevention policy is too important to be left to governments and international agencies alone. To succeed, it must also engage civil society, the private sector and the media”
Kofi Annan 1999
Planning for Risk Reduction collaborate with the private sector, voluntary groups and government to reduce and manage their risks.
National/Societal collaborate with the private sector, voluntary groups and government to reduce and manage their risks.
Programmes & Projects to Improve Systems Structures, Mechanisms & Procedures
Educate, Increase Capacity to access, create, use skills, & KNOWLEDGE
Enabling Strategies Supportive Policy, Legal & Institutional Frameworks
The Stages in Developing a Disaster Culture collaborate with the private sector, voluntary groups and government to reduce and manage their risks.
(Public outcry following disaster)
Three contexts where resilience needs
to be built into risk reduction activities
“The aim of disaster recovery is to restore normality…”
Senior Red Cross Official
“I am afraid you are wrong, in my country we have people who live in cardboard boxes, that is their normality, so are you suggesting that in the recovery plan we put them back in these boxes? No our ‘normality’ is the same as ’vulnerability’ and in recovery planning you must surely aim to reach a higher standard than the pre- disaster norm”
Wynante Patterson, Jamaican Nutritionist
Recognise that within a reconstruction programme there is a double challenge to recover rapidly and safely:
First, to reconstruct rapidly, to capitalise on political concerns and the availability of funds
Second, to reconstruct in a manner that is above pre-disaster standards of “normality” , that equalled “vulnerability”
(strength of elements to withstand stress without losing their function)
(the extent to which elements continue to function in the event of disruption)
(capacity to identify problems and mobilise resources)
(capacity to meet priorities and achieve goals in order to contain losses and avoid future disruption)
Building Resilience: (Hospital example)
Robustness Damage avoidance/ continued service
Redundancy Backup systems in place
Resourcefulness Plansand resources to cope
with damage and disruption,
hospital emergency plans
Rapidity Buildings/ equipment functional after
Robustness Avoidance of direct and indirect
Redundancy Alternative suppliers and relocated
venues for work operations
Resourcefulness Plansand stabilising measures
Rapidity Optimisingtimeto return to
pre- disaster functional levels
Robustness Avoidance of casualties and
disruption in the community
Redundancy Alternative means of providing for
Resourcefulness Plansand resources to meet
Rapidity Optimisingtimeto return to
pre-disaster community functions