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Continuing Saga of Adaptive Testing Principles Applied to Performance and Personality Measurement. Walter C. Borman PDRI, an SHL Company and University of South Florida. Presented to Gateway Industrial-Organizational Psychologists April 3, 2013. Outline.

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slide1

Continuing Saga ofAdaptive Testing Principles Applied toPerformance and Personality Measurement

Walter C. BormanPDRI, an SHL Companyand University of South Florida

Presented to

Gateway Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

April 3, 2013

outline
Outline
  • Description of the “adaptive test” concept
  • Development of computer-adaptive rating scales for measuring job performance
  • Development of NCAPS and GPI-Adaptive personality inventories
  • Initial validation results
  • Faking issue
  • Conclusions and next steps
description of the adaptive test concept
Description of the “Adaptive Test” Concept
  • Initial ability domain application
  • Our work began in the performance domain
  • Forced-choice Computer Adaptive Rating Scales (CARS)
  • Laboratory study showed lower standard error of measurement and higher validity and accuracy for CARS
canadian forces project
Canadian Forces Project
  • Performance rating scales for 8 leadership competencies for officers and CSMs in four rank clusters
    • Action Orientation and Initiative
    • Analytical Thinking
    • Behavioral Flexibility/Change Leadership
    • Commitment to Military Ethos
    • Communication
    • Developing Self and Others
    • Results Management
    • Teamwork
development of competency scales
Development of Competency Scales
  • Workshops with officer and CSM groups to generate items
  • Editing process
    • Items assigned to organizational level
    • Retranslation by I/O psychologists at PDRI and CF
  • Result is four item pools with 484 to 576 items
development of competency scales continued
Development of Competency Scales(continued)
  • Example items from Analytical Thinking
    • Consistently provides insightful observations and analyses regarding the organization and solutions to problems (M = 6.12)
    • Gathers and then analyzes information from a variety of sources to develop effective and timely solutions to problems (M = 5.13)
    • Finds creative solutions to problems but is unable to translate these to relevant, realistic, and practical recommendations (M = 3.08)
    • Has considerable trouble analyzing even straightforward problems (M = 1.29)
development of competency scales continued1
Development of Competency Scales(continued)
  • Example items from Action Orientation
    • Finds appropriate ways of accomplishing almost all tasks through initiative and hard work, and follow-through is typically outstanding (M = 6.23)
    • In most cases, takes the initiative to complete tasks on or ahead of time (M = 5.12)
    • Is not proactive in moving toward objectives, but usually achieves mission success by making steady progress(M = 3.52)
    • Is reactive to situations, slow to respond, and rarely seeks to resolve the larger issues (M = 1.43)
forced choice format example item pairs
Forced Choice Format: Example Item Pairs

Click on the behavior that is more descriptive of the ratee:

 Is a good role model for others in the CF related to personal conduct and military ethos (5.69)

vs.

 Usually accepts responsibility for own and subordinates’ actions (4.59)

forced choice format example item pairs1
Forced Choice Format: Example Item Pairs

Click on the behavior that is more descriptive of the ratee:

 Takes pride in serving the interests of the organization (5.42)

vs.

 Actively and consistently promotes the vision and values of the CF; maintains exemplary conduct consistent with this vision (6.76)

forced choice format example item pairs2
Forced Choice Format: Example Item Pairs

Click on the behavior that is more descriptive of the ratee:

 Always ensures that subordinates follow policies, regulations, and orders (5.65)

vs.

 Fully embraces the military profession and takes pride in the history, traditions, and values of the CF (6.47)

development of ncaps
Development of NCAPS
  • Idea was to apply CARS concept to non-cognitive testing
  • 19 potential personality constructs were identified
  • Psychologists rated their importance for 79 Navy jobs
  • 10 constructs selected based on means and SDs
constructs identified for ncaps
Constructs Identified for NCAPS
  • Achievement
  • Social Orientation
  • Stress Tolerance
  • Adaptability/Flexibility
  • Attention to Detail
  • Dependability
  • Dutifulness/Integrity
  • Self Reliance
  • Willingness to Learn
  • Vigilance
development of ncaps continued
Development of NCAPS(continued)
  • PDRI generated 1725 items at all trait levels
  • Construct and trait level “retranslation” was conducted
  • 1494 items survived, 106-199 per construct
example items for social orientation
Example Items for Social Orientation
  • It is easy for me to find something in common with any person I meet (M = 6.36)
  • It takes real effort for me to hide my impatience with people who aren’t very bright (M = 1.49)
  • I am able to make friends when I put some effort into it (M = 3.63)
validation results
Validation Results
  • Concurrent validation study designed with  110 first tour Navy Sailors
  • NCAPS and a conventional personality inventory administered and supervisor performance ratings gathered on nine “Navy-wide” dimensions
validation results continued
Validation Results(continued)
  • Unit-weighted composite of 10 NCAPS conventional against composite overall performance (r = .13 uncorrected;r = .18 corrected)
  • Unit-weighted composite of 10 NCAPS adaptive against composite overall performance (r = .27 uncorrected; r = .37 corrected)
overview of global personality inventory adaptive
Overview of Global Personality Inventory-Adaptive
  • General assessment of normal adult personality with a focus on workplace applications
  • Selection, development, classification of employees across levels and industries
measurement taxonomy
Measurement Taxonomy
  • Targeted a mid-level taxonomy similar in scope to NCAPS and with similar inclusion criteria:
    • Comprehensiveness and breadth
    • Unidimensionality
    • Level of specificity
    • Expectation of criterion-related and construct validity
    • Alsoglobal applicability
  • Review of dominant taxonomies resulted in 13 dimension taxonomy:
  • Self Development
  • Flexibility
  • Collaboration
  • Thoroughness
  • Reliability
  • Sense of Duty
  • Achievement
  • Composure
  • Confidence and Optimism
  • Independence
  • Sociability
  • Influence
  • Innovation
statement identification and development
Statement Identification and Development
  • Specification of score distribution and statement bank size
    • 7-point scale
    • Goal = 150 to 200 statements per trait
    • Facets specified as an item writing guide and to ensure construct coverage
  • Similar methodology to NCAPS statement development
    • Recruited experienced personality item writers
    • Item writing training
    • Pilot items reviewed by project team
    • Item writing assignments by trait; targeted to parts of the trait continuum to result in coverage across trait range
manager level validation
Manager-Level Validation
  • Concurrent validation study with incumbents in first line leader roles
  • Consortium of 8 organizations contributed 14 samples
    • Diverse set of organizations representing insurance, telecommunications, financial services, healthcare, retail industries
    • N = 1109 supervisors of hourly employees
    • N = 240 managers of salaried professionals
  • The same job performance rating form provided consistent performance criteria across samples
    • 27 performance dimension rating areas
    • 7 global rating items
validation results1
Validation Results
  • Concurrent Validity Study Against Supervisor Performance Ratings (N=1349)
  • Unit-Weighted Composite Against Overall Performance (r=.28, corrected for criterion unreliability)
  • Validities Asymptote at 5-8 Item Pairs
  • Testing Time ½ that of Conventional Inventory
faking research underhill lords bearden 2006
Faking ResearchUnderhill, Lords, & Bearden (2006)
  • Investigate fake resistance of NCAPS
    • First study to evaluate the extent to which participants can deliberately elevate their personality scores on NCAPS
    • NCAPS and non-adaptive/traditionally-formatted versions used
  • Students (N = 148)
    • T1: respond honestly
    • T2: deliberately fake to make the best impression possible for acquiring a job
  • Differences in personality scores from honest to faking were compared for each instrument
    • Adaptive NCAPS: no significant mean differences between honest and faking scores
    • Traditional NCAPS: significant mean differences on all traits measured
conclusions and next steps
Conclusions and Next Steps
  • Performance rating application shows promise but field study needed: Canadian Forces
  • Personality measurement application also promising
    • Modest validity improvement over non-adaptive
    • Shorter testing time by ~50%
    • Faking not as serious as feared
conclusions and next steps continued
Conclusions and Next Steps(continued)
  • Paired comparison judgment process and iterative IRT-based algorithm with raters or test takers may be an important factor in generating valid information for performance ratings and self-report personality reports
  • More research comparing the forced choice adaptive format applied to performance ratings and personality testing to non-adaptive formats should proceed