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Combining the Management Activities of Loading and Discharging with those of the Container Yard in small to medium sized Terminals or Ports to reduce Port turn-a-round Times of Feeder Vessels . Authors:. Dr F A Schmidt - M & SS (Europe) Ltd, UK. Mr M Ausiejus - SONEX CO., Lithuania. 1.

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slide1

Combining the Management Activities of Loading and Discharging with those of the Container Yard in small to medium sized Terminals or Ports to reduce Port turn-a-round Times of Feeder Vessels

Authors:

Dr F A Schmidt - M & SS (Europe) Ltd, UK

Mr M Ausiejus - SONEX CO., Lithuania

1

slide2

The Paper discusses Work related to:

  • Reducing the Port turn-a-round Time of Container

Feeder Vessels

  • Suggests Ways to combine Loading and Discharging

Operations with Yard Operation suitable for SMPs

  • The Means of Communication and the Processes

required

  • RTD Work originates in EU sponsored Project TRAPIST
  • Considerable Implications on eLOGMAR-M

2

slide3

Background

  • Development of Short Sea Shipping in Europe
  • Bottlenecks:
        • Availability of Information
        • Port Infrastructure
        • Port Efficiency
        • Ship Operational Efficiency

3

slide4

OBJECTIVE

To optimise Port turn-a-round Times by means

of Real-Time Pre-Stowage Plans leading to

improved Loading Arrangements

4

slide5

PROBLEM

Feeder Vessels carrying unitised Cargoes and calling

into several Ports in Sequence can experience

Difficulties due to the Unavailability of Cargo- and Ship

related Information as well as over-stowing of Cargo

5

slide6

QUESTIONS

  • How would it be possible to incorporate Loading / Discharging Management into a small to medium

sized Terminal’s Container Management System?

  • How can selected Data be shared between Terminals and other Members of the Port Community?

6

slide7

Incorporate Loading / Discharging Management

into a small to medium sized Terminal’s

Container Management System

  • The Cargo Arrangement of a Container Vessel
  • forms a three-dimensional Construct of:
  • Layers - counting in Container Heights

from the Tank Top upwards.

  • Bays - counting in Container Lengths

from the Bow to the Stern.

  • Rows - counting in Container Widths from

Centre Line to Port and Starboard.

Layers

Bays

Rows

7

slide9

Incorporate Loading / Discharging Management

into a small to medium sized Terminal’s

Container Management System

  • The Intersections of the three Dimensions form

identifiable Slots in which Containers are carried.

  • The Principle of the “Operationally correct Allocation of

Slots” according to:

    • Container Weight
    • Port of Discharge
    • Sequence of Destination- or Discharge Ports,

combined with the

  • Knowledge of which Slots in a named Vessel are

occupied and which ones are available for booking,

at anyone time throughout the Voyage, offers a Solution.

9

slide10

A Pre-Stowage Plan can be developed in

Real-Time as a Result of Cargo Bookings

Questions

  • “How can the Real-Time Data Transfer between Actors,

i.e. Ship, Terminal, Shipping Office, Freight Forwarder

and Authorities, e.g. Customs, be effected?” and

  • “How can Booking Clerks be guided to select the

operationally correct Slot?”

10

slide11

Real-Time Data Transfer between Actors

can be achieved by combining

  • The Use of Spreadsheets, one for each

Dimension, denoting:

    • Layer,
    • Bay, and
    • Row, with
  • The Use of Hand-held Mobile Computers:
    • Computers programmed in “html”.
    • Associated Web-Applications and GUI,

for non-IT personnel, programmed in XML.

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slide12

Incorporate Loading / Discharging Management

into a small to medium sized Terminal’s

Container Management System

  • Mobile Computers communicate over the Internet

with a Common System connected to a Database.

  • Ship / Port / Terminal, Shipping Line(s), and other

Members of the Port Community, selectively access

the Database according to their Privilege.

  • Using XML and Web-Messaging, mobile Computers

and PCs are able to communicate with one another.

  • As a Result, any Booking and associated Allocation of

Slot Space on a particular Vessel and Sailing, updates

the Database AND through this, the Pre-Stowage Plan

in Real-Time using the Common System.

12

slide13

The Communication System

Status Quo:

  • Generally, Information Exchange is by means

of Phone, Fax or e-mail.

  • Information concerning Ship and Cargo is

transmitted by Humans.

  • Ports have their own Systems Architecture and

Systems Platforms differ between Terminals.

Status Desirable:

  • A System “devoid” of Human Factors.

A System that can unite SMPs into an “indiscrete”

System able to automatically exchange Information.

13

slide14

Mission of such a “Common System”

  • To track Information on the Vessel and Cargo Traffic.
  • To enable the Actors of the Port Community to share

Information.

Two Main Tracking Aspects

  • Information re. The Cargo Location is available to the

Actors at any Time and anywhere.

  • Information re. The Cargo Arrangement on a

particular Vessel is available to the Actors at any Time

and anywhere.

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slide15

The Common System

Operates with two Objects: ‘Vessel’ and ‘Cargo’

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slide16

Information Flow

  • The Vessel arrives:
    • The Terminal’s Communication System sends Msg.1
      • Vessel’s Name, Time of Arrival, and
      • Ship and Cargo related Information.
  • The Common System:
    • Receives Notification of the Vessel’s Location
    • Ship and Cargo related Information, and
    • Allows Actors to query and amend this Information.
  • The Vessel has been served and leaves the Terminal:
    • The Terminal’s Communication System sends Msg.2
      • Vessel’s Name, Time of Departure,
      • Port of Destination and ETA,
      • Cargo Arrangement at the Time of Departure.

16

slide17

Information Flow

The Common System notifies other Terminals or Ports,

along the Ship’s Route, of the State of the Vessel

17

slide18

Information Flow

Activities:

  • The Ship is in Port A.
  • The Terminal’s Communication System sends Ship

specific Information to the Common System.

  • The Common System makes this Information

available to the Port Community for querying and

amending.

  • Scenario 1:
  • The Terminal or Port initiates the Information Retrieval

from the Common System on the Terminal’s Request.

  • Scenario 2:
  • The Common System spreads the Information for the

Terminals or Ports along the Itinerary of the Vessel.

Assumption: Port A = Port of Departure; Port D = Port of Destination

18

slide19

Information Flow

  • Scenario 1:
  • The Terminal or Port initiates the Information Retrieval

from the Common System on the Terminal’s Request.

  • Increases Administrative Costs.
  • Scenario 2:
  • The Common System spreads the Information for the

Terminals or Ports on the Itinerary of the Vessel.

  • Increases the Hardware and Software Costs.

19

slide20

Information Flow and the Common System

  • The Dependency of Terminal Systems on Hardware

Platforms:

    • Will cause Difficulties in the Selection and Imple-

mentation of the Unified Software installed in the

Communications Module of the Common System.

    • Demands a Communication System and Software

specifically developed for the Task.

20

slide22

Communication between the Terminal

and the Common System

The Terminal’s Container Management System:

    • exchanges Data with the Common System by

means of the Combination of a:

      • Data Transmitter and
      • Data Connector.
  • The Data Connector:
    • takes account of the External System and its

Architecture used by the Terminal.

    • serves as a Data Abstraction Facility.
  • The Data Transmitter:
    • communicates with the Terminal’s Container

Management System by means of the Data

Connector.

22

slide23

Communication between the Common System

and the Actors of the Port Community

  • The Actor makes his Request for Information.
  • The Common System accepts the Request after

checking the ‘Authorisation’ of the Actor.

  • The Common System analysis the Request by

extracting information re. Actor Type and Device

Type.

  • The Common System decides:
    • if the Information can be returned or not;
    • what kind of Data Transformation should be

applied to suite the receiving Device;

    • ensures that the returned Information is

represented in the appropriate manor.

23

slide24

Implementation of the Common System

A three-Layer Model comprising:

  • A Communication Level, i.e. the Entry Level Server

dedicated to the Communication Purposes.

  • An Application Level, i.e. the Middle Level Server

dedicated to the Processing of Requests.

  • A Data Storage Level, i.e. the Middle Level Server

in a Cluster Environment.

24

slide25

Industrial Application

  • to Problems and Communication System demands:
  • A Distribution of Container Weights - ‘Layers’.
  • A distribution of Containers according to Port of

Destination – ‘Bays’.

  • A Distribution of Container Weights – ‘Rows’.
  • The proposed Communication System in conjunction

with the above Distributions enables correct Slot

Allocation as part of the Booking Process and results

in a Real-Time Pre-Stowage Plan.

25

slide27

Results

  • Real-Time and correct Information available prior to

the Arrival of the Vessel.

  • Reduced multiple handling of Containers due to Over-

Stowing, Access Requirements and Stability / Trim.

  • Reduced Distances travelled by Container Handling

Equipment on the Terminal.

  • Block Stowage and the possible Combination of

Discharging and Loading Processes.

  • Better Utilisation of the Terminal’s Assets and

increased Container Throughput in the Port / Terminal.

  • Fewer Delays due to missing Information and a

commercially more attractive Port / Terminal.

  • Fewer Changes to the Pre-Stowage Plan during

Discharging and Loading avoiding associated Delays.

  • Reduced Port turn-a-round Times.
  • Less Uncertainty in ETAs and ETDs.

27