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Psychological Science, 3rd Edition Michael Gazzaniga Todd Heatherton Diane Halpern . Thinking and Intelligence. 8. Questions to Consider:. How Does the Mind Represent Information? How Do We Make Decisions and Solve Problems? How Do We Understand Intelligence? .
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How Does the Mind Represent Information?
How Do We Make Decisions and Solve Problems?
How Do We Understand Intelligence?
Explain the difference between analogical and symbolic representations and provide examples of each.
Describe how concepts and scripts can positively and negatively affect how we think.
(a) Analogical representations, such as this picture of a violin, have some characteristics of the objects they represent. (b) Symbolic representations, such as the word violin, are abstract and do not have relationships to the objects.
We group objects into categories according to the objects’ shared properties.
In the defining attribute model, concepts are organized hierarchically, such that they can be superordinate or subordinate to each other. For example, horns and stringed instruments are subordinate categories of the superordinate category of musical instruments.
According to the prototype model, some itemswithin a group or class are more representative (or prototypical) of that category than areother items within that group or class.
Distinguish among reasoning, decision making, and problem solving.
Explain how confirmation bias, affective forecasting, and framing can lead to errors in decision making.
List various ways of assessing intelligence, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Explain the nature/nurture controversy, and cite evidence for both sides.
Describe stereotype threat and explain how it may be a threat to validity.
As discussed in Chapter 2, the statistical concept of standard deviation indicates how far people are from an average. The standard deviation for most IQ tests is 15, such that approximately 68 percent of all people fall within 1 standard deviation (they score from 85 to 115) and just over 95 percent of people fall within 2 standard deviations (they score from 70 to 130).
Because it does not rely on verbal knowledge, this test is not culturally biased—or is it?
Shown are average IQ correlations for family,adoption, and twin study designs. Siblingsraised together show more similarity than siblings raised apart. Parent and child are moresimilar when the parent raises the child thanwhen the child is raised by someone else. Thehighest correlations are found among mono-zygotic twins, whether they are raised in thesame household or not. Overall, the greaterthe degree of genetic relation, the greater thecorrelation in intelligence.
There isa clear correlation between birth order and IQ:Firstborns have an average IQ of 103.Second-born children have an average IQ veryclose to 100, except if the firstborn child hasdied, in which case the average IQ for second-born children is 103. Third-born children havean average IQ of 99, except if one of theolder siblings has died (the third-borns’ average is 100) or if both older siblings have died(the third-borns’ average is 103). Apparently,having two older siblings grow up in the samehousehold lowers the third child’s IQ.
Critical Thinking Activities