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Psychological Science, 3rd Edition Michael Gazzaniga Todd Heatherton Diane Halpern . Personality. 13. Questions to Consider:. How Have Psychologists Studied Personality? How Is Personality Assessed, and What Does It Predict? What Are the Biological Bases of Personality?
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How Have Psychologists Studied Personality?
How Is Personality Assessed, and What Does It Predict?
What Are the Biological Bases of Personality?
How Do We Know Our Own Personalities?
List the major theorists and concepts associated with four general approaches to the study of personality.
Sigmund Freud theorized that mental activityoccurred in these three zones. He believedthat much of human behavior was influencedby unconscious processes.
Extraversion is asuperordinate trait made up of sociability,dominance, assertiveness, activity, and liveliness. Each ofthese subordinate traits is madeup of habitual and specific responses.
Mischel andShoda believed personality traits alone couldnot predict behavior.
Identify strengths and limitations of different methods of personality assessment.
Explain why personality does not always predict behavior.
These are three of the cards participants sort when taking the Q-Sort assessment.
A team of more than 120scientists investigated the Big Five personality traitsaround the world, from Argentina to Zimbabwe.
Describe the causal links among genes, temperament, and personality traits.
Recognize empirical findings supporting biological bases of personality.
Researchers examined correlations between123 pairs of identical twins (monozygotic)and 127 pairs of fraternal twins (dizygotic) inVancouver, Canada.
Researchers investigated the personalitydevelopment of more than 1,000 people, 97percent of whom remained in the studythrough their 21st birthdays. Those judgedundercontrolled at age three were later morelikely to have alcohol problems, to be criminals or unemployed, to attempt suicide, to beantisocial and anxious, and to have less socialsupport than those judged either well adjusted or inhibited.
Signals of potential reward are processed by the BAS. Signals of potential punishment are processed by the BIS. Based on the information each receives, the BAS activates behavior and the BIS inhibits behavior.
Be sure to consider multiple causes of a phenomenon, not just the one thatjumps out at you.
This graph shows the levels ofconsistency, at different ages, of the studyparticipants’ personalities.
Basic tendencies arebiologically based, but characteristic adaptations are influenced by situations. The lineswith arrows indicate some of the ways inwhich the different components interact. Theimportant point is that basic tendencies donot change across situations, but observablebehavior (objective biography) does becauseit is influenced by personal goals and motivesas well as by situations.
Differentiate among leading theoretical perspectives concerning the nature and origins of self-esteem.
Describe cultural differences in self-construal.
When considering themselves or their personalities, people are especially likely to mentioncharacteristics that distinguish them fromother people.
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is the gauge that measures the extent to which a person believes he or she is being (a) included in or (b) excluded from a social group.
This graph shows the study participants’ ratings of the letters ofthe alphabet.
Self-construals differ in (a) individualist and (b) collectivist cultures.
Critical Thinking Activities