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Week 2. Bias and Ethnocentrism Five Filters of Propaganda. Bias. Each person and each professor has their own perspective. Biology Gene Theory of Evolution Symbiogenesis Theory of Evolution. My Perspective. I am a critical Political-Economist

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week 2

Week 2

Bias and Ethnocentrism

Five Filters of Propaganda

  • Each person and each professor has their own perspective.
  • Biology
    • Gene Theory of Evolution
    • Symbiogenesis Theory of Evolution
my perspective
My Perspective
  • I am a critical Political-Economist
  • Like other courses you take, the content closely follows the professor’s perspective.
    • This class is no different.
  • You will, however, get a different perspective from what you are used to hearing!
both sides to an issue
Both Sides to an Issue?
  • Some people want to give equal time to opposing views.
    • Never just two sides.
  • “Balance” was ordered in coverage of civilian deaths in Afghanistan.
    • http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/1031-02.htm
value neutral or objective
Value Neutral or Objective
  • Some professors, journalists, or others will say they are objective.
  • Beware!
    • They are either ignorant of their bias
      • Or
    • They are intentionally trying to deceive you.
  • Remember, facts exist, but can be viewed differently depending on the perspective.
  • Ethnocentrism is seeing and judging the world ONLY from your personal perspective.
  • Ethnocentrism also places ourselves in a superior position relative to other people in order to justify our actions.
five elements of ethnocentrism
Five Elements of Ethnocentrism
  • Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Dehumanization
  • Civilizational Mission
  • Ideological Camouflage
  • Political Denial
viewing the other as inferior
Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Biological Inferiority
  • Moral/Cultural Inferiority
  • Once a group is viewed as inferior, it is easy to dehumanize them.
    • Individuals in the group are seen as less than true people, lacking souls, humanity, culture, etc.
    • Derogatory names are used to characterize the group.
civilizational mission
Civilizational Mission
  • Because it believes it is superior, one group takes it upon itself to "civilize" the “inferior” people.
    • Manifest Destiny
    • White Man’s Burden
    • Crusade on Terrorism
ideological camouflage
Ideological Camouflage
  • The subjugation and ill-treatment of other people need justification.
  • Sham science
    • Bell Curve
    • Eugenics
political denial
Political Denial
  • Government denies responsibility in the mistreatment of a group of people.
    • Ecuador gives indigenous people rights to land in their territory, BUT the government retains the rights to what is BELOW the land!
five elements of ethnocentrism1
Five Elements of Ethnocentrism
  • Viewing the Other as Inferior
  • Dehumanization
  • Civilizational Mission
  • Ideological Camouflage
  • Political Denial
five filters of propaganda

Five Filters of Propaganda

Distortion in the Media

  • Five Filters of Propaganda
    • Concentration of Ownership
    • Advertising
    • “Sourcing” the News
    • Flak
    • Anti-Communism
students and education
Students and Education
  • More than 50% of students at four-year schools and more than 75% at two-year colleges lacked the skills to perform complex literacy tasks.
  • That means they could not … understand the arguments of newspaper editorials, compare credit card offers with different interest rates and annual fees or summarize results of a survey about parental involvement in school.
      • http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-01-19-college-tasks_x.htm
recent media studies
Recent Media Studies
  • “A new study based on a series of seven US polls conducted from January through September of this year reveals that before and after the Iraq war, a majority of Americans have had significant misperceptions and these are highly related to support for the war in Iraq.”
  • http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/international_security_bt/102.php?nid=&id=&pnt=102&lb=brus
five filters in the propaganda model
Five Filters in the Propaganda Model
  • Concentration of Ownership
  • Advertising
  • “Sourcing” the News
  • Flak
  • Anti-Communism
concentration of ownership
Concentration of Ownership
  • 20 years ago, 50 companies controlled the vast majority of media resources. Now, it is five.
    • “These five huge corporations —
      • Time Warner,
      • Disney, (owns ABC)
      • Murdoch's News Corporation,
      • Bertelsmann of Germany, and
      • Viacom (formerly CBS)
    • — own most of the newspapers, magazines, books, radio and TV stations, and movie studios of the United States.” http://www.benbagdikian.com/
  • Advertising supports the costs of production for media outlets.
  • Outlets not able to attract advertisers are less able to compete.
  • Advertisers seek a “buying mood.”
  • Media outlets attempt to save money and time by relying on readily available sources for news.
  • Corporations, politicians and others provide press releases, press conferences and prepared videos for the media.
  • People and groups dissatisfied with media coverage will attempt to change coverage through complaints.
    • Complaints by pundits and editorial writers
    • Complaints by organized groups
    • Complaints by politicians
anti communism
  • While the authors wrote about the concept of anti-communism, we can see its application today.
  • Both the terms “liberal” and “terrorism” are used to dichotomize debate.
    • You are either with us, or against us.
  • The fear of terrorism is used to promote policies.
  • Concentration of Ownership
    • How does Murdoch and editors control news through memos?
  • Advertising
    • What is the “Fox Effect” on other networks?
  • Sources
    • Where does Fox get its information, commentators and guests?
  • Flak
    • Shut Up!
    • Personal Attacks
  • Anti-Terrorism
coming up
Coming up
  • Outfoxed
    • Applying the Filters of Propaganda