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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps PowerPoint Presentation
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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps

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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps

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  1. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHYMaps Chapter 2 C.J. Cox

  2. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  3. Key Terms • Map: a flat representation of a globe • Cartography - the art and science of mapmaking

  4. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  5. 4 KEY PROPERTIES OF MAPS Shape Area (size) Distance Direction

  6. Key Terms • Conformal Map - shows correct shape • Equal Area Map - shows correct area • Rhumb Line - line shows correct direction • Great Circle - the largest circle that can be drawn on a globe. This circle divides the globe into two halves and is the shortest distance between any two points.

  7. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  8. Key Terms • Great Circle - the largest circle that can be drawn on a globe. This circle divides the globe into two halves and is the shortest distance between any two points.

  9. Key Terms • Rhumb Line - line shows correct direction

  10. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  11. Map Projections • Projection: The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map. • A projection of an image onto another surface • either a cylinder, a flat plane or a cone • 3 basic types of projections • cylindrical projection • planular projection (also known as azimuthal) • conical projection

  12. CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION used by navigators to show direction Meridians run north & south Parallels run east & west

  13. Cylindrical Maps are conformal maps they conform to the correct shape

  14. CONICAL PROJECTION used for Mid-Latitude Maps True Area (between the standard parallels) Also referred to as equal area maps

  15. PLANULAR PROJECTION used by pilots Shows Great Circle Routes

  16. ROBINSON PROJECTION Compromise projection

  17. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range (Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  18. SCALE • Scale: the relationship between units on the map and actual distance on the ground • Written Scale: one inch equals one mile • Linear Scale: |---------|---------|----------| • or Graphic Scale • Representative Fraction: 1:63,360

  19. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  20. Latitude & Distance • Earth’s Circumference 24,840 miles • 24,840 divided by 360 degrees of a circle • One degree equals 69 miles • One degree can be divided into 60 parts or minutes • 69 miles divided by 60 equals 1.15 miles • Therefore one minute equals 1.15 miles • One minute is a nautical mile (1.15 miles)

  21. Latitude & Distance • One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds • One minute or 1.15 miles divided by 60 equals 102 feet • Therefore one second equals 102 feet • WHAT IS THE DISTANCE SHOWN ON A 15 MINUTE MAP?

  22. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  23. Longitude & Time

  24. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  25. Magnetic North • The earth holds a mass of liquid, fluid mass of iron around the solid inner core • This generates a powerful magnetic field within the earth that is generated into outer space

  26. True North = Geographic North or North Pole Magnetic North = where the compass points to 76N 102 W

  27. Declination - the difference between magnetic and geographic north 17 E

  28. Terms • Isogons - lines connecting points of equal magnetic variation away from the geographic north • Agonic Line - points along a line where there is no magnet variation or declination from the geographic north

  29. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  30. Township & RangePublic Land Survey System • A rectangular grid system adjusted to the geographic grid • East west lines are surveyed and coincide with parallels of latitude • prominent parallel is known as the base line • Vertical divisions are called ranges • prominent meridians are called principal meridians

  31. Chapter 2 Concepts • Key properties of maps • Great Circles • Map Projections • Scale • Latitude & Distance • Longitude & Time • Magnetic North • Township & Range ( Survey System) • Contour Maps • Remote Sensing

  32. Contour Maps • Maps showing lines that indicate locations of equal elevations