ME403 Chapter 3 Wing Aerodynamics. Wing Tip Vortices. Formation of Wing Tip Vortices. Flow Visualization. Flow Visualization. Wing Planform. Taper Ratio: Aspect Ratio: Planform Area:. Wing Twists. Geometric Twist: Angles of attack at wing root and wing tip are different .
Geometric Twist: Angles of attack at wing root and wing tip are different.
Washout: Angle of attack at tip lower than that at root. Used to reduce tip vortices.
Washin: Angle of attack at tip larger than that at root.
Aerodynamic Twist:Airfoil shape varies from wing root to wing tip.
Downwash varies along the span, strongest near the tips and diminishes towards the root.
Lift at each wing section is normal to the local effective velocity, resulting in less lift normal to the flight velocity and an extra induced drag in the direction of flight velocity.