Performance Appraisals • The formal structured system for measuring, evaluating, & influencing an employee’s job related attributes, behaviors, and outcomes
Why do them? • To make management decisions • Training…developmental • Retaining…developmental • Promoting…administrative • Rewarding…administrative
What should be evaluated • Job specific competencies • Written & oral communication • Supervision & leadership • Management & administration • Avoid personality unless it impacts job performance
When should appraisals be conducted? • Anniversary dates • End of the calendar/fiscal year • 1-2 x’s per year • Probationary employees • end of probation, midterm, annually
Appraisal Systems • 3 basic needs • A description of relevant behaviors that everyone agrees is critical to job performance (core & job specific) • A method to collect & evaluate data on the behavior of the person being evaluated • The ability to have a constructive discussion
Appraisal Systems • A description of relevant behaviors that everyone agrees is critical to job performance • Competencies with general definitions Takes Initiative – Proactively initiates changes or takes action to improve efficiency, address existing and potential problems, and satisfy customers. Rating: ________ Exceeds expectations(3); meets expectations (2); below expectations (1) 1=Poor 5=Excellent
Appraisal Systems Customer Service Activities designed to enhance the experience of visitors before, during and after purchase/interaction. Rating: ________ Effective written communication Written documents that are free of errors and express thoughts, purposes and ideas clearly. Rating: ________
Conflict Management 5 4 3 2 1 Has high level of skill resolving differences & reaching agreement by maintaining a problem solving attitude Has adequate skill resolving differences & reaching agreement by maintaining a problem solving attitude Has little skill resolving differences & reaching agreement by maintaining a problem solving attitude Oral Communication Skills 5 4 3 2 1 Always asks & answers questions clearly; displays good understanding of questions; demeanor is highly professional & friendly Asks & answers most questions clearly; displays adequate understanding of questions; demeanor is generally professional Questions & answers not clearly stated; often does not understand questions; demeanor is often unprofessional & unfriendly
Appraisal Systems • A method to collect & evaluate data on the behavior of the person being evaluated • Rating scales • Forced distribution • Critical incidents • MBO • 360 degree evaluations
Rating Scales • Form with listed criteria • Submits reports promptly • Examples…
Rating Scales • Results • Total score • Avoids showing stronger or weaker areas since there is 1 score • Score by section • Gives a score for each sub-section • More valuable to ee • See example…
Rating Scales • Problems with rating scales • Clarity of standards • What does satisfactory really mean • Can top be attained? • Insufficient evidence • Slanted toward managers view • Often no input from staff
Rating Scales • Problems with rating scales • Different perceptions • Impartiality is difficult • Excessive leniency or strictness
Rating Scales • Problems with rating scales • Halo effect • Carry over success in 1 area to all areas • Organizational skills are strong, assume leadership is strong • Influence of a person’s job • Assume the higher in the organization the better they perform
Forced Distribution • Rank order ee within a class • Used to distribute money • Like grading on a curve
Forced Distribution • Weaknesses • Assumes not everyone can be top performers • May penalize workers meeting all expectations
Critical Incidents • Determine critical incidents for the job • Evaluate extent to which ee fulfills the critical incidents • Mgr keeps a record of how ee handles C.I.’s • Allows manager to use + & - egs. • Eg….
Critical Incidents • Weaknesses • Mgr too focused on recording people’s actions • Seen as keeping a file on the ee
MBO • Look at org & indiv g & o • Evaluate on mutually agreed upon objectives • Beneficial to both agency & ee • Individual has control over eval
MBO • Weaknesses • Time consuming • EE & mgr must agree on obj. • There are functions that are difficult to put into a measurable objective • Creativity, play well with others
MBO • Weaknesses • Have to be able to write quality, measurable objectives
360 Evaluation Direct supervisor, peers & subordinates Helps ee see themselves as others see them Gives a better perspective of performance Biggest issue: confidentiality Example…
Appraisal Systems • The ability to have a constructive discussion • Tips….
Appraisal Systems • Constructive discussion tips… • Set a meeting in advance with the employee • Do not put off the meeting • 30-60 minutes • Have a written eval that is discussed orally • Self evaluations….
Appraisal Systems • Constructive discussion tips… • 30 minute prior screening period for the employee • Why?
Appraisal Systems • Constructive discussion tips… • Conduct the meeting systematically • Non-threatening, 2 way conversation • Explain your appraisal • Ask for comments, ?’s • Discuss plan for the future…career building • Focus is to max. performance in the future, not dwelling on the past
Appraisal Systems • Constructive discussion tips… • End result – action plan for the next evaluation period • Have no surprises • Have ee sign the form • Give time for written comments • Place the form in the ee file
Reduce the Dread of Evals • Give ee proper training & resources • Give proper feedback – no surprises • Set goals & objectives for each eval period • Provide rewards at different levels of achievement