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Air Quality alongside motorways Part 1

Air Quality alongside motorways Part 1

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Air Quality alongside motorways Part 1

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  1. Air Quality alongside motorwaysPart 1 Gijsjan van Blokland PhD, Sr. Consultant M+P Lotje van Ooststroom, Rijkswaterstaat (IPL) Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  2. Content • Air quality and health • Air quality in the Netherlands • Air quality and legislation • Source description and propagation process • Measurements procedures • Measures • Future developments Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  3. 1952 2009 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  4. air polluting elements emitted by road traffic Simple gasses: NOx =(NO+NO2); Complex molecules: VOS en PAK’s Particles: PM10-2,5, PM2,5, PM1 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  5. health effects air pollution • Lung diseases COPD • Asthma and bronchitis • Heart and vascular diseases Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  6. Health effect defined in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) • DALY is the number of lost healthy life years in the Netherlands population. • It represents the weighted sum of: • the number of affected persons • the severity of the disease • the amount of lost healthy life years Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  7. % in leven Bereikte leeftijd Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  8. DALY´s related to environmental pollution Air Quality alongside motorways 171209 8

  9. Content • Air quality and health • Air quality in the Netherlands • Air quality and legislation • Source description and propagation process • Measurements procedures • Measures • Future developments Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  10. Remote sensing of NOX concentration in W-Europe. Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  11. NOX and PM10 in NL in 2008 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  12. Yearly averaged PM10 concentration 1992 - 2007 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  13. Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  14. Origin of contributions to local air pollution Example of NO2 pattern in city Air Quality alongside motorways 171209 bron: Milieubalans, PBL, 2008

  15. Content • Air quality and health • Air quality in the Netherlands • Air quality and legislation • Source description and propagation process • Measurements procedures • Measures • Future developments Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  16. Limit values in European Directive Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  17. Limits have to be enforced in 2010 • 100% achievement of limits not possible. Therefore enforcement not possible. • Derogation procedure in the EU: • delayed enforcement of the limit values until 2015 • combined effect of measures defined in a national coordinated air quality program (NSL) will satisfy limit values in 2015. • small worsening allowed (3%) in order not to block essential improvements in the road network of housing construction. Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  18. Content • Air quality and health • Air quality in the Netherlands • Air quality and legislation • Source description and propagation process • Measurements procedures • Measures • Future developments Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  19. Air Quality alongside motorways 171209 bron: CE, Bron van inspiratie, 2005

  20. Transport to boundary layer Background Exhaust emission Deposition Resuspension Tyres + brakes + road surfaces Sources and local propagation of PM10 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  21. Transport to boundary layer Background NO and O3  NO2 Behind barrier Exhaust emission NO2 Sources and local propagation of NOX Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  22. Vehicle specific emission is very complex example of NOX emission of three EURO 3 vehicles as a function of engine speed and engine load Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  23. NOX emission of HDV as a function of speed, EURO 0 EURO 5 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209 Source: Pischinger et al, Update of the emission functions for heavy duty vehicles in the handbook Emission factors road traffic, Bericht nr. Pi-55/01 d.d. 30.4.2002 Graz University of Technology

  24. PM10 emission of average HDV as a function of speed, EURO 0EURO 5 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  25. Introduction of EURO classes Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  26. background meteo influence direct emission • exhaust • tyre • brake • clutch indirect emission Re-suspension deposition road surface emission cumulation: road surface wear / brakes / tyres / salt / clay Emission and local propagation of PM10 Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  27. Frame work of immission determination Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  28. Propagation is basically dilution by turbulent mixing • Dilution described by Gaussian plume • concentration in plume is given by exp(-x2), width of Gaussian bell curve increases with distance Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  29. Correct formulation, concentration of point source or line source at given distance x. Top: point source with emission Q, bottom: line source with source strength/m q Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  30. Plume geometry is not always straightforward, meteo is very important! Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  31. Also local geometry is very important Air Quality alongside motorways 171209 bron: Palmgren, 2003

  32. Additional complicating factor:main contribution to NO2 comes from conversion from NO+O3  NO2, reaction with limited speed Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  33. Total emission of a traffic stream (NOX or PM10) E: total emission N: number of vehicles/24h fM: fraction of medium heavy vehicles fZ: fraction of heavy vehicles EL: emission of a light vehicle EM: emission of a medium heavy vehicle EZ: emission of a heavy vehicle Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  34. Concentration at receiver E: emission per m length of road dW: length of road section number of vehicles/24h RB: distance from source to receiver σZ: vertical spreading coefficient z: height of receiver position C: correction for effect of surface roughness U: wind speed n: number of wind sections Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  35. Simplified propagation calculation model (CAR) Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  36. Emission factors for road vehicles IA; city-congested, IB: city-normal, IC: city-through road, II: regional road, III: highway Air Quality alongside motorways 171209

  37. Concentration calculation as function of distance from road. PM10 concentration NOX concentration Air Quality alongside motorways 171209