2005 aha guideline changes bls for healthcare providers n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
2005 AHA Guideline Changes BLS for Healthcare Providers PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
2005 AHA Guideline Changes BLS for Healthcare Providers

play fullscreen
1 / 52
Download Presentation

2005 AHA Guideline Changes BLS for Healthcare Providers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

tyrone
132 Views
Download Presentation

2005 AHA Guideline Changes BLS for Healthcare Providers

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 2005 AHA Guideline ChangesBLS for Healthcare Providers

  2. Purpose of BLS Changes To improve survival from cardiac arrest by increasing the number of victims of cardiac arrest who receive early, high-quality CPR • Planned, practiced response with CPR/AEDs yields survival rates of 49-74%

  3. What Have We Learned About CPR? • 330,000 die annually from coronary heart disease CDC • 60% from SCA @ home or en route • 85-90% in VF/VT arrest • 2-3 x greater survival if CPR is immediate, with defib <5 min. • EMS relies on trained, willing, equipped public

  4. Less than 1/3 get bystander CPREven pros don’t do good CPR! • Too slow • Too shallow • No CPR x 24-49% of the arrest!

  5. Most significant changes 2005 IT’S ALL ABOUT BLOOD FLOW! • Emphasis on effective CPR • Fast; deep; 50/50; minimal interruption • Single compression-to-ventilation ratio • 30:2 single rescuer adult, child, infant, excluding newborns

  6. Most significant changes (cont.) • Each shock from an AED should be followed by 2 minutes of CPR (5 cycles of 30:2) starting with compressions • Each rescue breath should take one second and produce visible chest rise • Reaffirmation that AEDs should be used for kids 1-8 y.o.

  7. Why change compressions? • When compressions stop, blood flow stops! • Universal compression ratio easier to learn/retain • Higher ratio yields more blood flow; keeps pump “primed”

  8. Why shorten breaths? • Large volume breaths increase ITP; decrease venous return to heart • Long breaths interrupt compressions • Hyperventilation decreases coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures • Over-ventilation increases air in stomach; regurgitation/aspiration

  9. Why from 3 shocks to 1? • Biphasic defibrillators eliminate VF 85% on first shock • Current AED sequence can delay CPR 37 seconds • Long CPR interruptions decrease likelihood of subsequent successful shocks • Myocardial “stunning” (O2, ATP depletion)

  10. Chest Compressions • 2005 (New): • Push hard, fast, rate of 100 per minute • Allow full chest recoil after each compression • Minimize interruptions (no more than 10 seconds at a time) except for specific interventions (advanced airway/AED)

  11. Chest Compressions cont’d • 2000 (Old): • Less emphasis was given to need for adequate depth, complete chest recoil, and minimizing interruptions

  12. Chest Compressions cont’d • Why: • If chest not allowed to recoil: • less venous return to heart • reduced filling of heart • Decreased cardiac output for subsequent chest compressions • When chest compressions are interrupted, blood flow stops and coronary artery perfusion pressure falls

  13. Chest Compressions cont’d • Why: • Study of CPR performed by healthcare providers found that: • ½ of chest compressions too shallow • No compressions provided during 24% to 49% of CPR time

  14. Changing Compressors Every 2 Minutes • 2005 (New): • If more than 1 rescuer present, change “compressor” roles every 2 minutes • 2005 (Old): • Rescuers changed when fatigued-usually did not report feeling fatigued until 5min. or more • Why: • In manikin studies, rescuer fatigue developed in as little as 1-2minutes(as demonstrated by inadequate chest compressions)

  15. Rescue Breathing without Compressions • 2005 (New): • 10-12 breaths per minute (adults) 1 every 5-6 seconds • 12-20 breaths per minute for infant or child 1 every 3-5 seconds • 2000 (Old): • 10-12 breaths for adults • 20 breaths for infant or child

  16. Rescue Breathing without Compressions cont’d • Why: • Wider range of acceptable breaths for infant and child will allow the provider to tailor support to patient Note: If you are assisting lay rescuer-they are not taught to deliver rescue breaths without chest compression

  17. Rescue Breaths with Compressions • 2005 (New): • Each rescue breath should be given over 1 second and produce visible chest rise • Avoid breaths that are too large or too forceful • Manikins configured so that visible chest rise occurs at 500-600ml • 2000 (Old): • Rescue breaths over 1-2 seconds • Recommended tidal volume for adult rescue breaths was 700ml-1000ml

  18. Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d • Why: • Oxygen Delivery • Oxygen delivery is product of oxygen content in the arterial blood and cardiac output (blood flow) • During first minutes of CPR for VF SCA, initial oxygen content in blood adequate/ cardiac output is reduced • Effective chest compressions more important than rescue breaths immediately after VF SCA

  19. Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d • Why: • Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio • The best oxygenation of blood and elimination of CO2 occur when ventilation (volume of breaths x rate) closely matches perfusion • During CPR , blood flow to lungs is about 25-33% of normal • Less ventilations needed during cardiac arrest than when patient has perfusing rhythm

  20. Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d • Why: • Hyperventilation leads to: • Increased positive pressure in the chest • Decreased venous return to the heart • Limited refilling of heart • Decreased cardiac output during subsequent compressions • Gastric distention/vomiting

  21. 2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway • 2005 (New): • No pause for ventilation when there is an advanced airway in place • 8-10 breaths per minute

  22. 2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway cont’d • 2000 (Old): • Recommended “asynchronous” compressions and ventilations • Ventilation rate of 12-15 per minute • Rescuers taught to re-check for signs of circulation “every few minutes”

  23. 2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway cont’d • Why: • Ventilations can be delivered during compressions • Avoid excessive number of breaths • During CPR, blood flow to lungs decreased, so lower than normal respiratory rate will maintain adequate oxygenation

  24. Airway/Trauma Victims • 2005 (New): • In patients with suspected cervical spine injuries-if unable to open airway using the jaw thrust, use the head-tilt chin lift • 2000 (Old): • Jaw thrust without head tilt taught to both lay rescuers and healthcare providers

  25. Airway/Trauma Victims cont’d • Why: • Jaw thrust difficult maneuver to learn,may not effectively open airway and it can cause spinal movement Opening the airway is a priority in an unresponsive trauma victim Manual stabilization preferred over immobilization devices during CPR

  26. “Adequate” vs.Presence or Absence of Breathing • 2005 (New): • BLS healthcare provider checks for: • adequate breathing in adult victims • presence or absence of breathing in children and infants • Advanced healthcare provider (with ACLS and PALS/PEPP) will assess for adequate breathing in victims of all ages

  27. Adequate vs. Presence or Absence of Breathing cont’d • 2000 (Old): • Healthcare provider checked for adequate breathing for victims of all ages • Why: • Children may demonstrate breathing patterns (rapid, grunting) which are adequate but not normal • Assessment for adequate breathing is more consistent with advanced provider skill

  28. Infant/Child: Give 2 Effective Breaths • 2005 (New): • Attempt “a couple of times” to deliver 2 effective breaths (that cause visible chest rise) • 2000 (Old): • Healthcare providers were taught to move head through a variety of positions to obtain optimal airway opening

  29. Infant/Child: Give 2 Effective Breaths cont’d • Why: • Most common mechanism of cardiac arrest in infants and children is asphyxial • Rescuer must be able to provide effective breaths

  30. Lone Healthcare Provider-”phone first” vs. “CPR first” • 2005 (New): • Tailor sequence to most likely cause of cardiac arrest • “Phone First” Sudden witnessed collapse (adult or child)-likely to be cardiac in origin. Call 9-1-1 and get the AED • “CPR First” Hypoxic Arrest (adult or child)- give 5 cycles or about 2 minutes of CPR before leaving victim to call 9-1-1 and get the AED

  31. Lone Healthcare Provider cont’d • 2000 (Old):Tailoring response to likely cause of arrest was not emphasized in training • Why: • Sudden collapse-likely cardiac and early CPR and defibrillation needed • Victims of hypoxic arrest need immediate CPR

  32. “Child” BLS Guidelines • 2005 (New): • Child CPR guidelines for healthcare providers apply to victims from 1 year of age to onset puberty (about 12-14 years old) • 2000 (Old): • Child CPR age 1-8

  33. Why: No single anatomic or physiologic characteristic that distinguishes a “child” victim from an “adult” victim No scientific evidence that identifies a precise age to begin adult techniques “Child” BLS cont’d

  34. Symptomatic BradycardiaInfants/Children • 2005 (New): • Chest compressions indicated if HR <60 and signs of poor perfusion, despite adequate ventilation • 2000 (Old): • Same recommendation in 2000 guidelines but it was not incorporated into the BLS training

  35. Symptomatic BradycardiaInfants/Children cont’d • Why: • Bradycardia is common terminal rhythm in infants and children Do not want to wait for development of pulseless arrest to begin chest compressions if there are signs of poor perfusion and no improvement with 02 and ventilatory support

  36. Child Chest Compressions • 2005 (New): • Use heel of 1 or 2 hands • 2000 (Old): • Use heel of 1 hand • Why: • Child manikin study showed that rescuers performed better chest compressions using the “adult” technique

  37. Infant Chest Compressions • 2005 (New): • Use the 2 thumb-encircling technique-sternum compressed with thumbs and use fingers to squeeze thorax • 2000 (Old): • Use of fingers to compress chest wall was not described • Why: • This technique results in higher coronary artery perfusion pressure

  38. Compression to Ventilation Ratios Infants/Children • 2005 (New): • Lone rescuer:Compression to ventilation ratio 30:2 for infants, children and adults for • 2 Rescuer CPR: 15:2 ratio for infants and children • 2000 (Old): • 15:2 adults 5:1 infants/children

  39. Compression to Ventilation Ratios Infants/Children cont’d • Why: • Simplify training • Reduce interruptions in chest compressions • 15:2 ratio for 2 rescuer CPR for infants/children will provide additional ventilations

  40. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction • 2005 (New): • Airway obstructions classified as mild or severe • Rescuers should act only if signs of severe obstruction present • poor air exchange • Increased respiratory distress • Silent cough • Cyanosis • Inability to speak or breath

  41. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d • 2005 (New) cont’d • If victim becomes unresponsive • ACTIVATE 9-1-1 and begin CPR • When airway opened during CPR, look in mouth and remove object if seen • No blind finger sweeps

  42. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d • 2000 (Old): • Rescuers taught to recognize • Partial obstruction with good air exchange • Partial obstruction with poor air exchange • Complete airway obstruction • Rescuers taught to ask 2 questions • Are you choking? • Can you speak? • Sequence for unresponsive choking victim was a complicated sequence/included abdominal thrusts

  43. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d • Why: • Simplification • Compressions during CPR may increase intrathoracic pressure more than abdominal thrusts • Blind finger sweeps may injure victims mouth/throat or rescuers finger

  44. Shock /Immediate CPR • 2005 (New): • Delivery of single shock for VF and pulseless VT followed by immediate CPR • Perform 2 minutes of CPR before checking for signs of circulation

  45. Shock /Immediate CPR cont’d • 2000 (Old): • 3 stacked shocks recommended • Why: • 3 shocks were based on use of monophasic waveforms • New biphasic defibrillators have a higher first-shock success rate • 3-shock sequence can result in delays up to 37 seconds or longer from delivery of shock and delivery of first post-shock compression

  46. Monophasic Defibrillation dose • 2005 (New): • Initial and subsequent shocks for VF/pulseless VT in adults 360J • 2000 (Old): • 200, 200-300J, 360J • Why: • One dose to simplify training

  47. Biphasic Defibrillation Dose • 2005 (New): • Initial shock for adults:150-200J for biphasic truncated exponential waveform • 120J for rectilinear biphasic waveform • The second dose should be the same or higher Rescuers should use the device-specific defibrillation dose. If rescuer unfamiliar with device-specific dose-use default dose of 200J

  48. Biphasic Defibrillation Dose cont’d • 2000 (Old): • 200J, 200-300J, 360J • Why: • Simplify defibrillation • Support use of device-specific doses

  49. Use of AED’s in Children • 2005 (New): • Recommended use of AED’s in children 1-8 years old • 2000 (Old): • Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against use of AED’s in children under 8 years old • Why: • Evidence published since 2000 shows AED’s safe and effective for use in infants and children

  50. Community/Lay Rescuer AED Programs • 2005 (New): • CPR/AED use by public safety first responders recommended to increase SCA survival rates • Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against AED’s in homes • 2000 (Old): • Key elements of an AED program included: • Physician oversight • Training of rescuers • Integration with EMS • Process of CQI