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2005 Dietary Guideline for American. Pam Sigler Extension Associate for Family and Consumer Science University of Kentucky Presented to Kentucky Nutrition Programs Assistant Training, April 2005. History.

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2005 dietary guideline for american

2005 Dietary Guideline for American

Pam Sigler

Extension Associate for Family and Consumer Science

University of Kentucky

Presented to Kentucky Nutrition Programs Assistant Training, April 2005

  • Science based advise to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity
  • By law, the Guidelines are reviewed every five years
  • Promoted by each federal agency carrying out food, nutrition, or health programs
nine major messages
Nine Major Messages
  • Consume a variety of foods within and among the basic food groups while staying within energy needs
  • Balance calorie intake with calories expended to manage body weight
  • Be physically active every day
  • Increase daily intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grain, and nonfat or low-fat milk and milk products
  • Choose fats wisely for good health
  • Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health
  • Choose and prepare foods with little salt
  • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation
  • Keep food safe to eat

1. Consume a variety of foods within and among the Basic Food Groups, while staying within energy needs.

promote increased dietary intake of
Promote increased dietary intake of:
  • Vitamin E
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Fiber
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
limit calorie intake especially from
Limit calorie intake, especially from
  • Added sugar
  • Solid fat
  • Alcoholic beverages

Avoid empty calories

special nutrient recommendations
Special nutrient recommendations
  • Adolescent females and women of childbearing age need extra iron and folic acid
  • Persons over age 50 benefit from taking vitamin B12 in fortified food or from supplements
  • The elderly, persons with dark skin, and persons exposed to little UVB radiation may need extra vitamin D from D fortified foods and supplements
calorie intake and physical activity go hand in hand
Calorie intake and physical activity go hand in hand
  • Energy expended must equal energy consumed to stay at the same weight
  • Limit portion sizes of high calorie foods
  • Increase intake of raw vegetables and low calorie foods
  • Reduce added sugar, solid fat and alcohol
how much activity
How much activity?
  • Make 30 minutes of moderate physical activity part of the adult daily routine
  • Up to 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity is needed to avoid weight gain
  • 60 to 90 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity is needed to lose weight or avoid regaining weight
moderate exercise
Moderate Exercise
  • When performing moderate exercise, a person feels some exertion but is able to comfortably carry on a conversation during the activity. Examples of moderate activity include:
    • Hiking
    • Light gardening or yard work
    • Dancing
    • Golf (walking and carrying clubs)
    • Bicycling (less than 10 miles per hour)
    • Walking (3.5 miles per hour)
vigorous exercise
Vigorous exercise
  • Vigorous Exercise is intense enough to be a challenge resulting in significant increase in heart and breathing rates. Examples of vigorous exercise include:
    • Running/ Jogging (5 miles per hour)
    • Bicycling (greater than 10 miles per hour)
    • Swimming (slow freestyle laps)
    • Aerobics
    • Walking (4.5 miles per hour)
    • Heavy Yard Work (chopping wood)

Vigorous exercise burns more calories than moderate exercise for the same time duration.

  • Researchers sometimes classify activities in terms of how much energy the task requires in comparison with resting energy consumption, referred to as a metabolic equivalent (MET). In this system,
    • one MET is equal to the energy needed to sustain the body at rest,
    • two METs is twice as much energy as resting metabolic rate, and so forth.

When using METs, moderate intensity activities are usually classified as those ranging from three to six METs. (Thompson, 2002) An activity of 6 or more METS is a vigorous activity. (CDC)

weight bearing
Weight bearing
  • Weight bearing exercise, that which loads the skeleton, has potential to reduce the risk of osteoporosis by
    • Increasing peak bone mass during growth
    • Maintaining peak bone mass during adulthood
    • Reducing the rate of bone loss during aging (2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report)
  • Total fat should be limited to 20-35 % of total caloric intake for adults
  • Limit fat to 30% for children ages 2-3 years
  • Limit fat to 24% for children ages 4-19
  • Limit saturated fat intake to below 10% per day
  • Limit trans fat intake to below 1% per day
  • Limit cholesterol intake to below 300 mg per day
epa and dha fatty acids
EPA and DHA Fatty acids
  • Contained in fish
  • Two servings (8 oz) per week is associated with reducing sudden death and coronary heart disease (CHD)
  • Pregnant women, lactating women and children are advised to avoid fish high in mercury
  • Sugars, starches and fiber found in fruits, vegetables, grains and milk products
  • Supply energy
  • Fiber rich choices promote healthy laxation and help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases
  • Reduce added sugar to limit weight gain and reduce risk of dental caries
  • Fruits and vegetables are a source of antioxidants and other phytochemicals.
6 increase daily intake of fruits vegetables whole grains and reduced fat milk and milk products

6. Increase daily intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and reduced-fat milk and milk products

  • Contain glucose, fructose, sucrose and fiber
  • Most are low in calories
  • Important source of
    • Vitamin C
    • Folate
    • Potassium (which helps to control blood pressure)
  • Contain a small amount of sugar
  • Some are high in starch
  • All provide fiber
  • Important source of
    • Potassium
    • Folate
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin E
fruits and vegetables consumption is associated with decreased risk of
Fruits and Vegetables consumption is associated with decreased risk of
  • Stroke
  • Other cardiovascular diseases
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Cancer in certain sites

Fruits and vegetables are a useful component of programs designed to achieve and sustain weight loss.

suggested servings of fruits and vegetables
Suggested servings of fruits and vegetables
  • 2 ½ to 6 ½ cups daily
    • For a 2,000 calories per day diet, the goal is 4 ½ cups
  • Choose a variety among
    • Citrus, melons, and berries
    • Other fruits
    • Dark green leafy vegetables
    • Bright orange vegetables
    • Legumes
    • Starchy vegetables
    • Other vegetables
whole grains
Whole Grains
  • Reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes
  • Help with weight control
  • Goal to eat three 1-ounce equivalents per day
  • Sources include: whole wheat, oatmeal, popcorn, bulgur, and brown rice
nonfat and low fat milk and milk products
Nonfat and low-fat milk and milk products
  • Source of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin D
  • 3 cups or equivalent, preferably of nonfat or low-fat milk products, is suggested for diet of 1,600 calories or greater
  • 3 cups per day can improve bone health
salt sodium chloride
Salt (sodium chloride)
  • Goal is to consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium per day
  • African Americans and older adults are at high risk for hypertension
  • Salt is associated with high blood pressure which can lead to stroke, heart disease, heart failure, and kidney disease
  • Increasing intake of potassium-rich foods helps to lower blood pressure
what is moderation
What is moderation?
  • Up to one drink per day for women
  • Up to two drinks per day for men
  • One drink is equal to
    • 12 ounce serving of beer
    • 5 ounce glass of wine (12% alcohol)
    • 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits
foodborne disease
Foodborne disease
  • 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the U.S. each year
  • 75% caused by
    • Salmonella
    • Listeria
    • Toxoplasma
prevention of foodborne illness
Prevention of foodborne illness
  • Clean hands, contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables
  • Separate raw, cooked and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, and storing
  • Cooking foods to a safe temperature
  • Chilling perishable food promptly
  • Avoiding high risk foods
high risk foods
High risk foods
  • Deli meats and frankfurters that have not been reheated to a safe temperature (may contain Listeria)
  • High risk group includes very young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those who are immunocompromised
heed the message
Heed the message
  • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet)
  • Adding at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity into one’s daily routine