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Organization Of The Human Body. Maintaining Homeostasis. Definition of Anatomy & Physiology. Anatomy: study of Structures Relationship of structures. Definition of Anatomy & Physiology. Physiology: study of the Function of structures. First “Real” Anatomist. William Harvey

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Organization of the human body

Organization Of The Human Body

Maintaining Homeostasis

Definition of anatomy physiology
Definition of Anatomy & Physiology

  • Anatomy: study of

    • Structures

    • Relationship of structures

Definition of anatomy physiology1
Definition of Anatomy & Physiology

  • Physiology: study of the

    • Function of structures

First real anatomist
First “Real” Anatomist

  • William Harvey

    • 1578 - 1657

    • First to observe heart and circulation.

    • First to notice differences between warm and cold blooded animals.

William Harvey

Levels of structural organization
Levels of Structural Organization

  • Chemical

  • Cellular

  • Tissue

  • Organ

  • Organ system

  • Organism

Integration of body systems
Integration of Body Systems

  • 8organ systems

  • Integrated- they work together to keep the organism alive

  • Strength of systems: they are specialized

    • therefore efficient

  • Weakness of systems: interdependence

    • When one system fails, the others also begin to fail

Unifying processes of life
Unifying Processes of Life

  • Metabolism

    • Catabolism = reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller ones (releases energy)

    • Anabolism=reactions that build complex molecules from smaller ones (requires energy)

  • Responsiveness: detecting and reacting to stimuli

  • Movement: from organelles cells organism

  • Growth:increase in body size

    • # of cells, cell size, space around cells.

  • Differentiation: process where unspecialized cells become specialized cells

  • Reproduction

    • New cells for growth or repair

    • Organism: production of a new individual

Maintaining an internal balance


Page: 7-9

Maintaining An Internal Balance

  • Homeostasis (sameness/standing still)

  • Ensures that the internal environment remains constant, even if external conditions change

  • Homeostasis is dynamic

Homeostasis and blood pressure


Page: 9

Homeostasis and Blood Pressure

  • Pressure-sensitive nerves in arteries sense higher BP.

  • Nerves send signal to brain.

  • Brain sends signals to slow heart rate.



System: Blood


Homeostasis and blood pressure1
Homeostasis and Blood Pressure

  • Blood pressure is the force behind blood as it flows through the arteries.

  • Systolic pressure: force exerted as ventricles contract: High BP reading

  • Diastolic pressure: force exerted as ventricles relax: Low BP

  • Increased heart rate and stroke volume increase BP.

Feedback systems


Page: 9

Feedback Systems

  • Feedback systems are either negative or positive.

    • Negative feedback systems reverse a change in a controlled condition

    • Positive feedback systems strengthen a change in a controlled condition. It is shut off by an event outside the system.

    • Most feedback systems in the human body are negative.

    • Childbirth is a positive feedback system

Regulation of glucose levels

  • The glucose roller coaster:

    • Low levels after sleep

    • High levels after breakfast, especially if lots of sugar is eaten

    • Low levels by lunch.

    • High levels after lunch high carb/ high sugar foods

    • Low levels by 2:00

Regulation of Glucose Levels

Note the higher glucose levels after eating meals high in starches and sugars

Regulation of glucose levels1

  • If excess glucose is present in the blood:

    • Insulin is secreted by islets of Langerhans (beta cells) in pancreas.

    • Insulin in the blood causes cells to take in glucose.

    • Glucose is also absorbed by liver cells which convert glucose to glycogen. (polysaccharide)

    • Net result: less glucose in the blood

Regulation of Glucose Levels

Regulation of glucose levels2
Regulation of Glucose Levels

  • When blood glucose levels are low:

    • Glucagon (hormone) is secreted by alpha cells in pancreas.

    • In the liver, glycogen is broken down into glucose and released into blood.

    • Net result: Glucose levels surrounding the cells stays fairly even throughout the day.

See Figure 13.12, pg 360

Basic anatomical position


Page: 11-15

Basic Anatomical Position

  • Individual is standing upright.

  • Arms placed at sides of the body.

  • Palms facing forward.

  • Feet flat on floor, toes forward.

Directional terms

Tortora 13

Directional Terms

  • Used to locate various body

    structures in relationship to

    each other.

    • Superior/ Inferior

      (Cranial/ Caudal)

    • Anterior Vs Posterior

      (Ventral /Dorsal)

    • Medial/ Lateral

    • Intermediate

    • Proximal/ Distal

    • Superficial/ Deep

Planes sections


Page 15

Planes & Sections

  • Imaginary flat surfaces through the body.

    • Sagittalplane

      • Midsagittal

      • Parasagital

    • Frontal (Coronal) plane

    • Transverse

Body cavities



Body Cavities

  • Spaces within the body that contain organs.

  • Ventral body cavity

    • Thoracic (heart& lungs)

      • Pericaridal cavity

      • Pleural cavity

    • Abdominal (digestive, liver, reproductive)

      • Lining of cavity is called the peritoneum

Body cavities1


Page 16

Body Cavities

  • The Dorsal cavity contains

    1. Cranial cavity

    • Cranial bones

    • the brain

      2.Vertebral canal

      • Vertebral column (bones)

      • Spinal cord

      • Beginnings of spinal nerves