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Cryptography: Helping Number Theorists Bring Home the Bacon Since 1977. Dan Shumow SDE Windows Core Security dshumow@microsoft.com. Outline. Introduction Symmetric Key Encryption Key Distribution: Diffie-Hellman Key Generation Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Introduction. I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
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Presentation Transcript ### Cryptography:Helping Number Theorists Bring Home the Bacon Since 1977

Dan Shumow SDE

Windows Core Security

dshumow@microsoft.com

1 Outline
• Introduction
• Symmetric Key Encryption
• Key Distribution:Diffie-Hellman Key Generation
• Elliptic Curve Cryptography

2 Introduction
• Cryptography, what is it and why should we care?
• Cryptography is the science of communicating secretly.
• Today so much communication is done over the internet and radio waves, and these media are very prone to eavesdropping. Cryptography allows people to communicate securely across these media.

3 Cryptography

Allows Alice to communicate with Bob without being overheard by Eavesdropper Eve.

Eve

Bob

Alice

4 Symmetric KeyEncryption
• Alice and Bob share a key K.
• They use an encryption function c=Ek(p).
• p is the plaintext and c is the ciphertext.
• It has to be reversible: p=Dk(c).
• If Alice wants to send Bob a message m she computes c = EK(m) and sends Bob c.
• Bob computes m = DK(c).

5 Symmetric KeyEncryption
• Want it to be hard to compute p given c. So if Eve doesn’t know K it is hard for her to compute m even if she intercepts c.
• Want Ekand Dk to be easy to compute. So there is little overhead to communication
• Want K to be hard to calculate given p and c. Otherwise if Eve can guess parts of the message she can recover the key.

6 Symmetric KeyEncryption

Examples:

• Substitution Ciphers: Substitute each letter in the alphabet for another one.
• One Time Pads: A key that is the same length as the message, used only once.
• Modern Ciphers
• Stream Ciphers: RC4
• Block Ciphers: DES, AES

7 Symmetric KeyEncryption

Attacks on Encryption Algorithms:

• Substitution Ciphers: Frequency Attacks
• One Time Pads are provably secure.
• Modern Attacks:
• Linear Cryptanalysis looks for a linear relationship between plaintext and ciphertext. (Known Plaintext Attack.)
• Differential Cryptanalysis looks at how differences in plaintext cause differences in ciphertext. (Chosen Plaintext Attack.)

8 Symmetric KeyEncryption

Modern Encryption Algorithm Design Techniques

• Confusion and Diffusion
• Diffusion means many bits of the plaintext (possibly all) affect each bit of the ciphertext.
• Confusion means there is a low statistical bias of bits in the ciphertext.
• Non-Linearity: The encryption function is not linear (represented by a small matrix)
• Prevents Linear Cryptanalysis.

9 Symmetric KeyEncryption

Problem: Key Distribution

• Can’t keep using same key, Eve will eventually recover K.
• Need to establish shared secret key:
• Could agree to physically meet and establish keys.
• But what if you want to communicate with someone on the other side of the world?

Key distribution is a big problem.

10 Diffie-HellmanKey Generation

Basic Idea:

• Alice and Bob agree on an integer g.
• (a) Alice secretly chooses integer x, computes X = gx and sends it to Bob.(b) Bob secretly chooses integer y, computes Y = gy and sends it to Alice.
• (a) Alice computes Yx=(gy)x=gxy.(b)Bob computes Xy=(gx)y=gxy.
• Alice and Bob both share gxywhich they can use to create a secret key.

11 Diffie-HellmanKey Generation

Wait!! It’s not secure. If Eve overhears what g,X, and Y are she can compute:

x = loggX and y = loggY

And use this information to calculate gxy.

To make this secure Alice and Bob pick a large prime number P and reduce everything mod P (take the remainder after division by P)

12 Diffie-HellmanKey Generation

New and Improved Idea:

• Alice and Bob agree on an integer g and prime P.
• (a) Alice secretly chooses integer x, computesX = gx mod P and sends it to Bob.(b) Bob secretly chooses integer y, computes Y = gy mod P and sends it to Alice.
• (a) Alice computesYx mod P=(gy)x mod P =gxy mod P.(b)Bob computesXy mod P=(gx)y mod P =gxy mod P.
• Alice and Bob both share the value gxymod P which they can use to create a secret key.

13 Diffie-HellmanKey Generation

By adding the prime P into the equation we now need to make sure that g is a “generator” of P. This means that for every integer x in {1,2,3,…,P-1}there exists an integer d such that:

x = gdmod P.

d is called the “discrete log” of g mod P.

14 Diffie-HellmanKey Generation

Why Does This Work?

• Because the positive integers less than P form a multiplicative, cyclic group with generator g.
• It is hard to compute the discrete log of a generator mod P.

Given these two things:

• This algorithm works.
• It is hard for Eve to calculate gxymod P.

15 Groups
• A group is a set G with a binary operation ·:G×G→Gwith the following properties:
• Associativity: a(bc)=(ab)c
• Identity Element: there exists e in G, such that for all a in Gea=ae=a.
• Inverses: for all a in G there exists an element a-1 in G such that aa-1 =a-1a = e

16 Special Groups
• Abelian Groups are groups that have a fourth axiom
• Commutative: for all a and b in Gab = ba
• Cyclic Groups are groups that have a generator g. Where g is an element of G such that for all a in G:a = gxwhere x is a positive integer.Note that all Cyclic groups are Abelian.Can you see why?

17 Special Groups
• Multiplicative Groups are groups where the operation is called multiplication. Example: the group of n×n invertible matrices.
• Additive Groups are groups where the operation is called addition. Additive Groups are abelian. Example: the integers.

18 Diffie-Hellman Key Generation

What does this all mean for Diffie-Hellman Key Generation?

Answer: It means that Diffie-Hellman will work as a key exchange algorithm in any cyclic group where computing discrete logarithms is hard.

19 Elliptic CurveCryptography
• Elliptic Curves are a way of modifying existing crypto systems like DH to make them “stronger.”
• “Stronger” means the expected time of an attack is longer with equal key sizes.
• This allows us to use smaller key sizes and therefore speed up the whole process.
• This makes ECC very useful for small devices like phones or other embedded systems.

20 Elliptic Curves
• An Elliptic Curve is such an alternate cyclic group. The group consists of all points of the form: y2 = x3 + ax + b. Where x, y, a, and b are all elements of a field F.

21 Fields
• A field is a set that has mathematical operations multiplication and addition that behave in nice ways.
• Basically a field is any set that you can do everything from your high school algebra class in.

22 Fields

A field F is a set S along with two binary operations (+,·) that have the following properties:

• S contains two distinct elements 0 and 1
• (S-{0},·) is a multiplicative group, with identity 1.
• (S,+) is an additive group, with identity 0.
• Multiplication is distributive on the left and the right:a·(b+c) = a·b+a·c(a+b)·c = a·c+b·c

23 Elliptic Curves

Group operation: Let P = (xP,yP) and Q = (xQ,yQ) be points on the an Elliptic Curve E. Then:

R = P + Q = (xR,yR)

is defined by:xR= s2-xP-xQyR=-yP+s(xP-xR)

where:s = (yP-yQ)/(xP-xQ) if xP≠xQors = (3xP2+a)/(2yP2) if xP=xQ

Identity: A “point at infinity” is added to the set of points on the curve. This point is infinitely far along the y access.

24 Elliptic Curves

Intuition: If you have 2 points on this curve, they define a line that intersects the curve at 1 other point. Addition is derived from this. Inverses are reflections about the x access.

25 Elliptic CurveCryptography

Newer and more Improved Idea:

• Alice and Bob agree on an Elliptic Curve E (specified by the field F and parameters a,b) and a base point g on E.
• (a) Alice secretly chooses integer x, computesX = xg and sends it to Bob.(b) Bob secretly chooses integer y, computes Y = yg and sends it to Alice.
• (a) Alice computes: xY= x(yg)=xyg.(b)Bob computes: yX= y(xg)=yxg=xyg.
• Alice and Bob both share the point xyg which they can use to create a secret key.

26 Elliptic CurveCryptography
• In the preceding example all math is done in the group defined by E. Exponentiation is taken to be iterative addition.
• Because Elliptic Curves are groups we are guaranteed that we can perform all these operations.
• Computing logarithms in elliptic curves is difficult, so Eve can not recover the secret values and determine the shared value xyg.

27 References
• Eric W. Weisstein. "Elliptic Curve." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/EllipticCurve.html
• Eric W. Weisstein et al. "Group." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Group.html
• Eric W. Weisstein. "Field." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Field.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_%28mathematics%29
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_(mathematics)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic_curves

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